Roadless Wilderness Area Determines Forest Elephant Movements in the Congo Basin
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{"title"=>"Roadless wilderness area determines forest elephant movements in the Congo Basin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Blake", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103002042"}, {"first_name"=>"Sharon L.", "last_name"=>"Deem", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006188960"}, {"first_name"=>"Samantha", "last_name"=>"Strindberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508171334"}, {"first_name"=>"Fiona", "last_name"=>"Maisels", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601992715"}, {"first_name"=>"Ludovic", "last_name"=>"Momont", "scopus_author_id"=>"25646176300"}, {"first_name"=>"Inogwabini Bila", "last_name"=>"Isia", "scopus_author_id"=>"14014296700"}, {"first_name"=>"Iain", "last_name"=>"Douglas-Hamilton", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507571521"}, {"first_name"=>"William B.", "last_name"=>"Karesh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003884292"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Kock", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197383244"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"352678567", "sgr"=>"56149107684", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"18958284", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-56149107684", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0003546", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"b3638924-0453-3c48-9940-44bd4cc15c51", "abstract"=>"A dramatic expansion of road building is underway in the Congo Basin fuelled by private enterprise, international aid, and government aspirations. Among the great wilderness areas on earth, the Congo Basin is outstanding for its high biodiversity, particularly mobile megafauna including forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). The abundance of many mammal species in the Basin increases with distance from roads due to hunting pressure, but the impacts of road proliferation on the movements of individuals are unknown. We investigated the ranging behaviour of forest elephants in relation to roads and roadless wilderness by fitting GPS telemetry collars onto a sample of 28 forest elephants living in six priority conservation areas. We show that the size of roadless wilderness is a strong determinant of home range size in this species. Though our study sites included the largest wilderness areas in central African forests, none of 4 home range metrics we calculated, including core area, tended toward an asymptote with increasing wilderness size, suggesting that uninhibited ranging in forest elephants no longer exists. Furthermore we show that roads outside protected areas which are not protected from hunting are a formidable barrier to movement while roads inside protected areas are not. Only 1 elephant from our sample crossed an unprotected road. During crossings her mean speed increased 14-fold compared to normal movements. Forest elephants are increasingly confined and constrained by roads across the Congo Basin which is reducing effective habitat availability and isolating populations, significantly threatening long term conservation efforts. If the current road development trajectory continues, forest wildernesses and the forest elephants they contain will collapse.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/roadless-wilderness-area-determines-forest-elephant-movements-congo-basin", "reader_count"=>216, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>43, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>44, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>46, "Other"=>21, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>43, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>44, "Student > Postgraduate"=>12, "Student > Master"=>46, "Other"=>21, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Environmental Science"=>79, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>107, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>107}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>14}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>79}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Bangladesh"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Botswana"=>1, "Tanzania"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "South Africa"=>2, "Kenya"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>14}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453735", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453741", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453783", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453795", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453809", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453829", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453845", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453861", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453874", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/453886"], "description"=>"<div><p>A dramatic expansion of road building is underway in the Congo Basin fuelled by private enterprise, international aid, and government aspirations. Among the great wilderness areas on earth, the Congo Basin is outstanding for its high biodiversity, particularly mobile megafauna including forest elephants (<em>Loxodonta africana cyclotis</em>). The abundance of many mammal species in the Basin increases with distance from roads due to hunting pressure, but the impacts of road proliferation on the movements of individuals are unknown. We investigated the ranging behaviour of forest elephants in relation to roads and roadless wilderness by fitting GPS telemetry collars onto a sample of 28 forest elephants living in six priority conservation areas. We show that the size of roadless wilderness is a strong determinant of home range size in this species. Though our study sites included the largest wilderness areas in central African forests, none of 4 home range metrics we calculated, including core area, tended toward an asymptote with increasing wilderness size, suggesting that uninhibited ranging in forest elephants no longer exists. Furthermore we show that roads outside protected areas which are not protected from hunting are a formidable barrier to movement while roads inside protected areas are not. Only 1 elephant from our sample crossed an unprotected road. During crossings her mean speed increased 14-fold compared to normal movements. Forest elephants are increasingly confined and constrained by roads across the Congo Basin which is reducing effective habitat availability and isolating populations, significantly threatening long term conservation efforts. If the current road development trajectory continues, forest wildernesses and the forest elephants they contain will collapse.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roadless", "determines", "movements", "congo", "basin"], "article_id"=>149375, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stephen Blake", "Sharon L. Deem", "Samantha Strindberg", "Fiona Maisels", "Ludovic Momont", "Inogwabini-Bila Isia", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton", "William B. Karesh", "Michael D. Kock"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Roadless_Wilderness_Area_Determines_Forest_Elephant_Movements_in_the_Congo_Basin/149375", "title"=>"Roadless Wilderness Area Determines Forest Elephant Movements in the Congo Basin", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-10-28 02:36:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/917774"], "description"=>"<p>Study area, illustrating a, National parks in which collars were deployed and collaring locations. b, Change in roadless wilderness size collar deployment dates to the present. Note that total wilderness at the time of collar deployment is represented by red and black areas combined, while red colour alone represents wilderness remaining in 2008 c, Bull forest elephant in Ivindo NP fitted with a GPS telemetry collar.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/ecosystem ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology"], "article_id"=>588221, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stephen Blake", "Sharon L. Deem", "Samantha Strindberg", "Fiona Maisels", "Ludovic Momont", "Inogwabini-Bila Isia", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton", "William B. Karesh", "Michael D. Kock"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Figure_1_/588221", "title"=>"Figure 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-28 02:17:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/917911"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated Conditional Dependence of a, MCP size. b, 95%KHR size. c, 50% KHR size. d, MLD on roadless wilderness area. Estimates (solid lines) and confidence intervals (dashed lines), with a rug plot that displays a vertical line for each data point along the x-axis of the plot, are shown. To avoid over-fitting, the degrees of freedom for these models were restricted to 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/ecosystem ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology"], "article_id"=>588366, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stephen Blake", "Sharon L. Deem", "Samantha Strindberg", "Fiona Maisels", "Ludovic Momont", "Inogwabini-Bila Isia", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton", "William B. Karesh", "Michael D. Kock"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Figure_2_/588366", "title"=>"Figure 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-28 02:19:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/917996"], "description"=>"<p>a, Mouadje's trajectory including the 3 road crossing locations. The area of highest occupancy outside the national park was centred on a large area of open canopy Marantaceae Forest <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546#pone.0003546-Letouzey1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>, dominated by a dense understorey of <i>Megaphrynium macrostachyum</i> (Marantaceae) a major food source for forest elephants that sometimes originates as a result of past human disturbance <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546#pone.0003546-White1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>, which is also abundant in the Odzala NP. Mouadje's long trajectory which took her across the road was probably driven by the desire to access mineral deposits in the park at the Mouadje Bai b, Mouadje's daily travel distances, with the three unprotected road crossings marked by red diamonds. c&d, Daily travel distances for Tommy and Lango with protected road crossings marked by red diamonds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crossing", "elephants", "odzala"], "article_id"=>588449, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stephen Blake", "Sharon L. Deem", "Samantha Strindberg", "Fiona Maisels", "Ludovic Momont", "Inogwabini-Bila Isia", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton", "William B. Karesh", "Michael D. Kock"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Road_crossing_by_elephants_at_the_Odzala_site_/588449", "title"=>"Road crossing by elephants at the Odzala site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-28 02:20:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/918094"], "description"=>"1<p>Minimum Convex Polygon Home Range.</p>2<p>Maximum Linear Displacement.</p>3<p>95% Fixed Kernel Home Range.</p>4<p>50% Fixed Kernel Home Range.</p>5<p>Proportion of 1000 correlated random walks which crossed an unprotected road.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ranging", "collared", "generated", "simulated", "trajectories"], "article_id"=>588541, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Stephen Blake", "Sharon L. Deem", "Samantha Strindberg", "Fiona Maisels", "Ludovic Momont", "Inogwabini-Bila Isia", "Iain Douglas-Hamilton", "William B. Karesh", "Michael D. Kock"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003546.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basic_ranging_statistics_for_collared_forest_elephants_Note_that_values_in_all_but_the_last_column_were_generated_from_the_raw_collar_data_while_values_in_the_final_column_PRC_were_the_result_of_simulated_trajectories_see_Materials_and_Methods_for_detail/588541", "title"=>"Basic ranging statistics for collared forest elephants. Note that values in all but the last column were generated from the raw collar data, while values in the final column (PRC) were the result of simulated trajectories (see Materials and Methods for details).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-10-28 02:22:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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