Sex Differences in Neural Activation to Facial Expressions Denoting Contempt and Disgust
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{"title"=>"Sex differences in neural activation to facial expressions denoting contempt and disgust", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"André", "last_name"=>"Aleman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006820955"}, {"first_name"=>"Marte", "last_name"=>"Swart", "scopus_author_id"=>"23969695800"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"56649118863", "pmid"=>"18985147", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"352721853", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-56649118863", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0003622"}, "id"=>"3b2bb498-7eb2-3505-a5e3-e19fc2b15653", "abstract"=>"The facial expression of contempt has been regarded to communicate feelings of moral superiority. Contempt is an emotion that is closely related to disgust, but in contrast to disgust, contempt is inherently interpersonal and hierarchical. The aim of this study was twofold. First, to investigate the hypothesis of preferential amygdala responses to contempt expressions versus disgust. Second, to investigate whether, at a neural level, men would respond stronger to biological signals of interpersonal superiority (e.g., contempt) than women. We performed an experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in which participants watched facial expressions of contempt and disgust in addition to neutral expressions. The faces were presented as distractors in an oddball task in which participants had to react to one target face. Facial expressions of contempt and disgust activated a network of brain regions, including prefrontal areas (superior, middle and medial prefrontal gyrus), anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, parietal cortex, fusiform gyrus, occipital cortex, putamen and thalamus. Contemptuous faces did not elicit stronger amygdala activation than did disgusted expressions. To limit the number of statistical comparisons, we confined our analyses of sex differences to the frontal and temporal lobes. Men displayed stronger brain activation than women to facial expressions of contempt in the medial frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus. Conversely, women showed stronger neural responses than men to facial expressions of disgust. In addition, the effect of stimulus sex differed for men versus women. Specifically, women showed stronger responses to male contemptuous faces (as compared to female expressions), in the insula and middle frontal gyrus. Contempt has been conceptualized as signaling perceived moral violations of social hierarchy, whereas disgust would signal violations of physical purity. Thus, our results suggest a neural basis for sex differences in moral sensitivity regarding hierarchy on the one hand and physical purity on the other.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sex-differences-neural-activation-facial-expressions-denoting-contempt-disgust", "reader_count"=>111, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Philosophy"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>62, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>62}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>2, "United States"=>4, "Norway"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916366"], "description"=>"<p>Activation in the left superior frontal gyrus was associated with scores on the Social Dominance Orientation scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "activated", "stronger", "men", "women", "contempt", "disgust"], "article_id"=>586820, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_regions_activated_stronger_in_men_than_in_women_for_the_contrast_of_contempt_8211_disgust_there_were_no_regions_that_were_activated_stronger_in_women_for_this_contrast_/586820", "title"=>"Brain regions activated stronger in men than in women for the contrast of contempt – disgust (there were no regions that were activated stronger in women for this contrast).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:38:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916415"], "description"=>"<p>All stimuli (faces and standards) were presented for 1.9 s. There were 9, 10 or 11 standards after each face presentation (this was randomized). Total duration of the task was approximately 35 min.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "oddball", "faces", "distractors", "patterns"], "article_id"=>586873, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Presentation_of_stimuli_in_the_visual_oddball_task_with_emotional_faces_as_distractors_and_random_dot_patterns_as_standards_/586873", "title"=>"Presentation of stimuli in the visual oddball task with emotional faces as distractors and random dot patterns as standards.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:38:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916309"], "description"=>"<p>Brain regions activated stronger in men than in women (blue color) or stronger in women than in men (orange color) in response to emotional expressions of contempt (above) or disgust (below).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "activated", "stronger", "men", "women", "expressions", "contempt", "disgust"], "article_id"=>586761, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_regions_activated_stronger_in_men_than_in_women_blue_color_or_stronger_in_women_than_in_men_orange_color_in_response_to_emotional_expressions_of_contempt_above_or_disgust_below_/586761", "title"=>"Brain regions activated stronger in men than in women (blue color) or stronger in women than in men (orange color) in response to emotional expressions of contempt (above) or disgust (below).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:38:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916501"], "description"=>"<p>Contrasts that are not mentioned in the table did not show significant activation differences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "men", "faces", "denoting", "disgust", "contempt", "compared"], "article_id"=>586953, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_regions_that_were_significantly_more_active_in_men_and_in_women_respectively_for_male_faces_denoting_disgust_or_contempt_as_compared_to_female_faces_denoting_the_same_emotion_/586953", "title"=>"Brain regions that were significantly more active in men and in women, respectively, for male faces denoting disgust or contempt (as compared to female faces denoting the same emotion).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:39:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916537"], "description"=>"<p>Brain regions that were significantly more active in men than women (there were no areas more active in women than men) for the contrast of contempt versus disgust (talaraich coordinates, peak t-value and number of active voxels in the cluster).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "men", "women", "areas", "contempt", "disgust", "t-value", "voxels"], "article_id"=>586989, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_regions_that_were_significantly_more_active_in_men_than_women_there_were_no_areas_more_active_in_women_than_men_for_the_contrast_of_contempt_versus_disgust_talaraich_coordinates_peak_t_value_and_number_of_active_voxels_in_the_cluster_/586989", "title"=>"Brain regions that were significantly more active in men than women (there were no areas more active in women than men) for the contrast of contempt versus disgust (talaraich coordinates, peak t-value and number of active voxels in the cluster).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:39:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916267"], "description"=>"<p>Bilateral activation of amygdala during perception of contempt and disgust expressions (shared activation; conjunction analysis).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["activation", "amygdala", "contempt", "disgust", "expressions", "conjunction"], "article_id"=>586724, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bilateral_activation_of_amygdala_during_perception_of_contempt_and_disgust_expressions_shared_activation_conjunction_analysis_/586724", "title"=>"Bilateral activation of amygdala during perception of contempt and disgust expressions (shared activation; conjunction analysis).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:38:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/916463"], "description"=>"<p>Brain regions that were significantly more active in men than women (first part of table) or more active in women than men (second part) for emotional expressions of contempt or disgust (relative to standards; columns indicate hemisphere, talairach coordinates [x, y, z], peak t-value and number of active voxels in the cluster).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "men", "women", "expressions", "contempt", "disgust", "columns", "talairach", "coordinates", "t-value", "voxels"], "article_id"=>586911, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["André Aleman", "Marte Swart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003622.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_regions_that_were_significantly_more_active_in_men_than_women_first_part_of_table_or_more_active_in_women_than_men_second_part_for_emotional_expressions_of_contempt_or_disgust_relative_to_standards_columns_indicate_hemisphere_talairach_coordinates_/586911", "title"=>"Brain regions that were significantly more active in men than women (first part of table) or more active in women than men (second part) for emotional expressions of contempt or disgust (relative to standards; columns indicate hemisphere, talairach coordinates [x, y, z], peak t-value and number of active voxels in the cluster).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 07:39:10"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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