A Meta-Analysis of Local Adaptation in Plants
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{"title"=>"A meta-analysis of local adaptation in plants", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roosa", "last_name"=>"Leimu", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506494757"}, {"first_name"=>"Markus", "last_name"=>"Fischer", "scopus_author_id"=>"24325048800"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19104660", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0004010", "sgr"=>"58049220322", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-58049220322", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"354011928"}, "id"=>"efbd74e0-85fc-38aa-9a58-45c6bea3b5cc", "abstract"=>"Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the outcomes of reciprocal transplant experiments using two approaches. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the performance of local and foreign plants at all transplant sites. In addition, we analysed frequencies of pairs of plant origin to examine whether local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared transplant sites. In both approaches, we also examined the effects of population size, and of the habitat and species characteristics that are predicted to affect local adaptation. We show that, overall, local plants performed significantly better than foreign plants at their site of origin: this was found to be the case in 71.0% of the studied sites. However, local plants performed better than foreign plants at both sites of a pair-wise comparison (strict definition of local adaption) only in 45.3% of the 1032 compared population pairs. Furthermore, we found local adaptation much more common for large plant populations (>1000 flowering individuals) than for small populations (<1000 flowering individuals) for which local adaptation was very rare. The degree of local adaptation was independent of plant life history, spatial or temporal habitat heterogeneity, and geographic scale. Our results suggest that local adaptation is less common in plant populations than generally assumed. Moreover, our findings reinforce the fundamental importance of population size for evolutionary theory. The clear role of population size for the ability to evolve local adaptation raises considerable doubt on the ability of small plant populations to cope with changing environments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/metaanalysis-local-adaptation-plants", "reader_count"=>591, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>31, "Researcher"=>137, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>40, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>168, "Student > Postgraduate"=>21, "Student > Master"=>97, "Other"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>31, "Researcher"=>137, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>40, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>168, "Student > Postgraduate"=>21, "Student > Master"=>97, "Other"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>23, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>86, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>29, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>436, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>436}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>29}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>23}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>86}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>17, "Portugal"=>1, "Greece"=>1, "Austria"=>2, "Sweden"=>2, "Brazil"=>5, "Poland"=>1, "Slovakia"=>1, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>2, "Reunion"=>1, "Ecuador"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>6, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>10, "Norway"=>1, "Finland"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>7, "Indonesia"=>2}, "group_count"=>22}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/913062"], "description"=>"<p>SC = Self-compatible, SI = Self-incompatible, R = reciprocal transplant experiment, E = experimental test environments, RA = habitats/sites selected randomly, NR = sites selected because of clear habitat differences, NC = environments/habitats not constant in time, C = environments/habitats constant in time, HE = spatially heterogeneous habitats, HO = spatially homogeneous habitats, L = large populations (>1000 individuals), S = small populations (<1000 individuals), number of comparisons refers to local-foreign comparisons (i.e. individual effect sizes) per study and species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "studies", "included"], "article_id"=>583521, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Roosa Leimu", "Markus Fischer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plant_study_and_habitat_characteristics_of_studies_included_in_the_meta_analysis_/583521", "title"=>"Plant, study and habitat characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-12-23 00:58:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/912860"], "description"=>"<p>The effect size measures the difference in fitness of foreign and local plants (“a” or “b”) at one site (“A” or “B”). A positive effect size indicates that local plants perform better than foreign plants at their site of origin. A) The case where local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared sites, i.e. where the reaction norms for fitness cross and both effect sizes are positive ( = POS-POS). B, C) Plants of one origin (“A”) perform better at both compared sites. In this case of non-crossing reaction norms for fitness one effect size is positive and one is negative ( = POS-NEG). The resulting mean effect size can be positive (B) or negative (C). D) Foreign plants perform better than local plants at both sites indicating maladaptation (effect sizes negative = NEG-NEG).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graphs", "combinations", "norms", "corresponding", "sizes"], "article_id"=>583317, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Roosa Leimu", "Markus Fischer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_graphs_of_the_possible_combinations_of_reaction_norms_for_fitness_and_corresponding_effect_sizes_Hedges_d_/583317", "title"=>"Conceptual graphs of the possible combinations of reaction norms for fitness and corresponding effect sizes (<i>Hedges' d</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-12-23 00:55:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/450808"], "description"=>"<div><p>Local adaptation is of fundamental importance in evolutionary, population, conservation, and global-change biology. The generality of local adaptation in plants and whether and how it is influenced by specific species, population and habitat characteristics have, however, not been quantitatively reviewed. Therefore, we examined published data on the outcomes of reciprocal transplant experiments using two approaches. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the performance of local and foreign plants at all transplant sites. In addition, we analysed frequencies of pairs of plant origin to examine whether local plants perform better than foreign plants at both compared transplant sites. In both approaches, we also examined the effects of population size, and of the habitat and species characteristics that are predicted to affect local adaptation. We show that, overall, local plants performed significantly better than foreign plants at their site of origin: this was found to be the case in 71.0% of the studied sites. However, local plants performed better than foreign plants at both sites of a pair-wise comparison (strict definition of local adaption) only in 45.3% of the 1032 compared population pairs. Furthermore, we found local adaptation much more common for large plant populations (>1000 flowering individuals) than for small populations (<1000 flowering individuals) for which local adaptation was very rare. The degree of local adaptation was independent of plant life history, spatial or temporal habitat heterogeneity, and geographic scale. Our results suggest that local adaptation is less common in plant populations than generally assumed. Moreover, our findings reinforce the fundamental importance of population size for evolutionary theory. The clear role of population size for the ability to evolve local adaptation raises considerable doubt on the ability of small plant populations to cope with changing environments.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["meta-analysis", "adaptation", "plants"], "article_id"=>148856, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Roosa Leimu", "Markus Fischer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Meta_Analysis_of_Local_Adaptation_in_Plants/148856", "title"=>"A Meta-Analysis of Local Adaptation in Plants", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-12-23 02:27:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/912963"], "description"=>"<p>A) Effects of plant characteristics and B) of population characteristics on the effect size (Hedges' <i>d</i>). A positive effect size indicates better performance of local plants compared to foreign plants at a given site. Bars denote bias-corrected 95% confidence limits and the grey lines denote the pair-wise contrasts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adaptation"], "article_id"=>583432, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Roosa Leimu", "Markus Fischer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evidence_for_local_adaptation_and_effects_of_different_plant_and_habitat_characteristics_/583432", "title"=>"Evidence for local adaptation and effects of different plant and habitat characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-12-23 00:57:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/912928"], "description"=>"<p>A) The better performance of local plants compared to foreign plants is significantly greater for large (N = 24) than for small (N = 8) populations. The bars denote bias-corrected 95% confidence limits. B) The frequencies of cases where reaction norms for fitness cross (POS-POS, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010#pone-0004010-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>) indicating selection for locally adapted specialists, cases where the reaction norms do not cross (POS-NEG), and cases where effect sizes are negative at both sites indicating maladaptation (NEG-NEG). White bars denote large populations and grey bars denote small populations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/plant-environment interactions", "ecology/population ecology"], "article_id"=>583384, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Roosa Leimu", "Markus Fischer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_of_plant_population_size_and_local_adaptation_/583384", "title"=>"Relationship of plant population size and local adaptation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-12-23 00:56:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/913023"], "description"=>"<p>For the graph we pooled the data for each pair of plant origins by the traits reported for this pair. For the statistical tests reported in the text we also used data pooled by study and species to avoid pseudoreplication.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geographic"], "article_id"=>583485, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Roosa Leimu", "Markus Fischer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004010.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_of_geographic_distance_and_local_adaptation_/583485", "title"=>"Relationship of geographic distance and local adaptation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-12-23 00:58:05"}

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Relative Metric

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