Metabolic and Behavioral Compensations in Response to Caloric Restriction: Implications for the Maintenance of Weight Loss
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{"title"=>"Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: Implications for the maintenance of weight loss", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Leanne M.", "last_name"=>"Redman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701377384"}, {"first_name"=>"Leonie K.", "last_name"=>"Heilbronn", "scopus_author_id"=>"8290379900"}, {"first_name"=>"Corby K.", "last_name"=>"Martin", "scopus_author_id"=>"8322400100"}, {"first_name"=>"Lilian", "last_name"=>"de Jonge", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004183637"}, {"first_name"=>"Donald A.", "last_name"=>"Williamson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402435697"}, {"first_name"=>"James P.", "last_name"=>"Delany", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006890914"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric", "last_name"=>"Ravussin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102544164"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19198647", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0004377", "sgr"=>"84887212384", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84887212384", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"354230209"}, "id"=>"89bfed11-07d0-3309-9413-2217adae665e", "abstract"=>"Background\\nMetabolic and behavioral adaptations to caloric restriction (CR) in free-living conditions have not yet been objectively measured.\\n\\nMethodology and Principal Findings\\nForty-eight (36.8±1.0 y), overweight (BMI 27.8±0.7 kg/m2) participants were randomized to four groups for 6-months; Control: energy intake at 100% of energy requirements; CR: 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX: 12.5% CR plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; LCD: low calorie diet (890 kcal/d) until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Body composition (DXA) and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 14-days by doubly labeled water (DLW) and activity related energy activity (AREE) were measured after 3 (M3) and 6 (M6) months of intervention. Weight changes at M6 were −1.0±1.1% (Control), −10.4±0.9% (CR), −10.0±0.8% (CR+EX) and −13.9±0.8% (LCD). At M3, absolute TDEE was significantly reduced in CR (−454±76 kcal/d) and LCD (−633±66 kcal/d) but not in CR+EX or controls. At M6 the reduction in TDEE remained lower than baseline in CR (−316±118 kcal/d) and LCD (−389±124 kcal/d) but reached significance only when CR and LCD were combined (−351±83 kcal/d). In response to caloric restriction (CR/LCD combined), TDEE adjusted for body composition, was significantly lower by −431±51 and −240±83 kcal/d at M3 and M6, respectively, indicating a metabolic adaptation. Likewise, physical activity (TDEE adjusted for sleeping metabolic rate) was significantly reduced from baseline at both time points. For control and CR+EX, adjusted TDEE (body composition or sleeping metabolic rate) was not changed at either M3 or M6.\\n\\nConclusions\\nFor the first time we show that in free-living conditions, CR results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may influence weight loss and weight loss maintenance.\\n\\nTrial Registration\\nClinicalTrials.gov NCT00099151", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/metabolic-behavioral-compensations-response-caloric-restriction-implications-maintenance-weight-loss", "reader_count"=>150, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909785"], "description"=>"<p>Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) is measured by doubly labeled water over a 2-week period whereas sedentary 24-h energy expenditure (24h-EE) is measured in a respiratory chamber. Spontaneous physical activity was calculated as previously reported <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377#pone.0004377-Martin1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a> whereas the thermic effect of food (TEF) was calculated in the chamber as per Tataranni et al <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377#pone.0004377-Tataranni1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a> and the same percentage of energy intake (9–12% across subjects) was assumed to assess the extra TEF in free living conditions. The changes in total daily energy expenditure after 3 and 6 months of CR (Bottom Panel) are shown and those representing a metabolic adaptation (larger than due to weight loss) are highlighted in grey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caloric", "components", "expenditure"], "article_id"=>580240, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_caloric_restriction_CR_n_8202_8202_12_on_all_components_of_daily_energy_expenditure_Top_Panel_/580240", "title"=>"The effect of caloric restriction (CR, n = 12) on all components of daily energy expenditure (Top Panel).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 00:04:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909886"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted values were calculated on the basis of the equations generated at baseline. A significant <i>P</i> value indicates “metabolic adaptation”, i.e. the measured value is below the predicted value for the new metabolic mass (fat-free mass and fat mass). Data are mean±SE for the 46 participants who completed the study.</p>*<p>indicates a significant change from baseline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expenditure", "doubly", "labeled", "m3"], "article_id"=>580337, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_daily_energy_expenditure_TDEE_kcal_day_measured_by_doubly_labeled_water_at_M0_M3_and_M6_/580337", "title"=>"Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; kcal/day) measured by doubly labeled water at M0, M3 and M6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 00:05:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449243", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/449303"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Metabolic and behavioral adaptations to caloric restriction (CR) in free-living conditions have not yet been objectively measured.</p><h3>Methodology and Principal Findings</h3><p>Forty-eight (36.8±1.0 y), overweight (BMI 27.8±0.7 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) participants were randomized to four groups for 6-months; <em>Control</em>: energy intake at 100% of energy requirements; <em>CR</em>: 25% calorie restriction; <em>CR+EX</em>: 12.5% CR plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure by structured exercise; <em>LCD</em>: low calorie diet (890 kcal/d) until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Body composition (DXA) and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 14-days by doubly labeled water (DLW) and activity related energy activity (AREE) were measured after 3 (M3) and 6 (M6) months of intervention. Weight changes at M6 were −1.0±1.1% (Control), −10.4±0.9% (CR), −10.0±0.8% (CR+EX) and −13.9±0.8% (LCD). At M3, absolute TDEE was significantly reduced in CR (−454±76 kcal/d) and LCD (−633±66 kcal/d) but not in CR+EX or controls. At M6 the reduction in TDEE remained lower than baseline in CR (−316±118 kcal/d) and LCD (−389±124 kcal/d) but reached significance only when CR and LCD were combined (−351±83 kcal/d). In response to caloric restriction (CR/LCD combined), TDEE adjusted for body composition, was significantly lower by −431±51 and −240±83 kcal/d at M3 and M6, respectively, indicating a metabolic adaptation. Likewise, physical activity (TDEE adjusted for sleeping metabolic rate) was significantly reduced from baseline at both time points. For control and CR+EX, adjusted TDEE (body composition or sleeping metabolic rate) was not changed at either M3 or M6.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>For the first time we show that in free-living conditions, CR results in a metabolic adaptation and a behavioral adaptation with decreased physical activity levels. These data also suggest potential mechanisms by which CR causes large inter-individual variability in the rates of weight loss and how exercise may influence weight loss and weight loss maintenance.</p><h3>Trial Registration</h3><p>ClinicalTrials.gov <a href=\"http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00099151?idNCT00099151&rank1\">NCT00099151</a></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["metabolic", "compensations", "caloric", "implications"], "article_id"=>148546, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>30, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Metabolic_and_Behavioral_Compensations_in_Response_to_Caloric_Restriction_Implications_for_the_Maintenance_of_Weight_Loss/148546", "title"=>"Metabolic and Behavioral Compensations in Response to Caloric Restriction: Implications for the Maintenance of Weight Loss", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 02:22:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909644"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental design (A) and body weight and composition changes (B) at the completion of the study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["changes", "completion"], "article_id"=>580099, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_design_A_and_body_weight_and_composition_changes_B_at_the_completion_of_the_study_/580099", "title"=>"Experimental design (A) and body weight and composition changes (B) at the completion of the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 00:01:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909920"], "description"=>"<p>Data are mean±SE and [range].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characteristics", "48", "men", "women"], "article_id"=>580369, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physical_characteristics_of_48_men_and_women_in_weight_maintenance_at_baseline_/580369", "title"=>"Physical characteristics of 48 men and women in weight maintenance at baseline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 00:06:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909515"], "description"=>"<p>The CONSORT diagram was published previously <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377#pone.0004377-Heilbronn1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pennington", "calerie"], "article_id"=>579971, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_of_participants_through_the_Pennington_Phase_1_CALERIE_trial_/579971", "title"=>"Flow of participants through the Pennington Phase 1 CALERIE trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 02:46:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/909735"], "description"=>"<p>* represents a significant change from baseline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caloric", "aree", "tdee", "m3", "m6", "adjusting", "smr", "sedentary"], "article_id"=>580178, "categories"=>["Computational Biology", "Physiology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Leanne M. Redman", "Leonie K. Heilbronn", "Corby K. Martin", "Lilian de Jonge", "Donald A. Williamson", "James P. Delany", "Eric Ravussin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_caloric_restriction_on_AREE_change_in_TDEE_at_M3_and_M6_after_adjusting_for_SMR_a_measure_of_sedentary_energy_expenditure_/580178", "title"=>"The effect of caloric restriction on AREE (change in TDEE at M3 and M6 after adjusting for SMR (a measure of sedentary energy expenditure).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-09 00:02:58"}

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Relative Metric

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