Evidence for Directional Selection at a Novel Major Histocompatibility Class I Marker in Wild Common Frogs (Rana temporaria) Exposed to a Viral Pathogen (Ranavirus)
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{"title"=>"Evidence for directional selection at a novel major histocompatibility class I marker in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) exposed to a viral pathogen (Ranavirus)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Amber G.F.", "last_name"=>"Teacher", "scopus_author_id"=>"15846633500"}, {"first_name"=>"Trenton W.J.", "last_name"=>"Garner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005973727"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard A.", "last_name"=>"Nichols", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201505539"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"354309066", "sgr"=>"84865350067", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"19240796", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865350067", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0004616", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"a93c2389-15f7-381a-b479-d0be4e83bb8b", "abstract"=>"Whilst the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is well characterized in the anuran Xenopus, this region has not previously been studied in another popular model species, the common frog (Rana temporaria). Nor, to date, have there been any studies of MHC in wild amphibian host-pathogen systems. We characterise an MHC class I locus in the common frog, and present primers to amplify both the whole region, and specifically the antigen binding region. As no more than two expressed haplotypes were found in over 400 clones from 66 individuals, it is likely that there is a single class I locus in this species. This finding is consistent with the single class I locus in Xenopus, but contrasts with the multiple loci identified in axolotls, providing evidence that the diversification of MHC class I into multiple loci likely occurred after the Caudata/Anura divergence (approximately 350 million years ago) but before the Ranidae/Pipidae divergence (approximately 230 mya). We use this locus to compare wild populations of common frogs that have been infected with a viral pathogen (Ranavirus) with those that have no history of infection. We demonstrate that certain MHC supertypes are associated with infection status (even after accounting for shared ancestry), and that the diseased populations have more similar supertype frequencies (lower F(ST)) than the uninfected. These patterns were not seen in a suite of putatively neutral microsatellite loci. We interpret this pattern at the MHC locus to indicate that the disease has imposed selection for particular haplotypes, and hence that common frogs may be adapting to the presence of Ranavirus, which currently kills tens of thousands of amphibians in the UK each year.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evidence-directional-selection-novel-major-histocompatibility-class-i-marker-wild-common-frogs-rana", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>73, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Linguistics"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>73}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Finland"=>1, "Guatemala"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/448579"], "description"=>"<div><p>Whilst the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is well characterized in the anuran <em>Xenopus</em>, this region has not previously been studied in another popular model species, the common frog (<em>Rana temporaria</em>). Nor, to date, have there been any studies of MHC in wild amphibian host-pathogen systems. We characterise an MHC class I locus in the common frog, and present primers to amplify both the whole region, and specifically the antigen binding region. As no more than two expressed haplotypes were found in over 400 clones from 66 individuals, it is likely that there is a single class I locus in this species. This finding is consistent with the single class I locus in <em>Xenopus</em>, but contrasts with the multiple loci identified in axolotls, providing evidence that the diversification of MHC class I into multiple loci likely occurred after the Caudata/Anura divergence (approximately 350 million years ago) but before the Ranidae/Pipidae divergence (approximately 230 mya). We use this locus to compare wild populations of common frogs that have been infected with a viral pathogen (<em>Ranavirus</em>) with those that have no history of infection. We demonstrate that certain MHC supertypes are associated with infection status (even after accounting for shared ancestry), and that the diseased populations have more similar supertype frequencies (lower F<sub>ST</sub>) than the uninfected. These patterns were not seen in a suite of putatively neutral microsatellite loci. We interpret this pattern at the MHC locus to indicate that the disease has imposed selection for particular haplotypes, and hence that common frogs may be adapting to the presence of <em>Ranavirus</em>, which currently kills tens of thousands of amphibians in the UK each year.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["directional", "histocompatibility", "frogs", "exposed", "viral", "pathogen"], "article_id"=>148408, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Amber G. F. Teacher", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "Richard A. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004616", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evidence_for_Directional_Selection_at_a_Novel_Major_Histocompatibility_Class_I_Marker_in_Wild_Common_Frogs_Rana_temporaria_Exposed_to_a_Viral_Pathogen_Ranavirus_/148408", "title"=>"Evidence for Directional Selection at a Novel Major Histocompatibility Class I Marker in Wild Common Frogs (<em>Rana temporaria</em>) Exposed to a Viral Pathogen (<em>Ranavirus</em>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-02-25 02:20:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/906859"], "description"=>"<p>Individuals are labeled with disease status ‘POS’ (Rv+) or ‘NEG’ (Rv−), population ID, individual ID and allele ID. Bootstrap support values are reported by each node.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mhc", "sequences", "supertypes"], "article_id"=>577317, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Amber G. F. Teacher", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "Richard A. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004616.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neighbour_Joining_Tree_of_MHC_Sequences_with_Supertypes_Labeled_/577317", "title"=>"Neighbour-Joining Tree of MHC Sequences with Supertypes Labeled.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-25 02:01:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/906758"], "description"=>"<p>Infected (Rv+) populations are indicated by black circles, and uninfected (Rv−) by grey circles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites"], "article_id"=>577222, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Amber G. F. Teacher", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "Richard A. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004616.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_Showing_the_Location_of_Study_Sites_in_England_/577222", "title"=>"Map Showing the Location of Study Sites in England.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-25 02:00:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/906939"], "description"=>"<p>The chi-squared value obtained from empirical data is marked with an arrow, together with the 95% confidence limit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chi-squared", "generated", "randomizing"], "article_id"=>577397, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Amber G. F. Teacher", "Trenton W. J. Garner", "Richard A. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004616.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_Chi_squared_Values_Generated_by_Randomizing_Disease_Status_/577397", "title"=>"Distribution of Chi-squared Values Generated by Randomizing Disease Status.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-02-25 02:03:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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