Producer Nutritional Quality Controls Ecosystem Trophic Structure
Publication Date
March 20, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Just Cebrian, Jonathan B. Shurin, Elizabeth T. Borer, Bradley J. Cardinale, et al
Volume
4
Issue
3
Pages
e4929
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004929
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19300514
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654170
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19300514
Web of Science
000265496800010
Scopus
63749098979
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/producer-nutritional-quality-controls-ecosystem-trophic-structure
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Producer nutritional quality controls ecosystem trophic structure", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Just", "last_name"=>"Cebrian", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004408618"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan B.", "last_name"=>"Shurin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603610637"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth T.", "last_name"=>"Borer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602316198"}, {"first_name"=>"Bradley J.", "last_name"=>"Cardinale", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603742749"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacqueline T.", "last_name"=>"Ngai", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003760968"}, {"first_name"=>"Melinda D.", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"8947893100"}, {"first_name"=>"William F.", "last_name"=>"Fagan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004381231"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0004929", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"354416622", "pmid"=>"19300514", "sgr"=>"63749098979", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-63749098979"}, "id"=>"008cbc6f-dfcf-37ed-adcc-96d08c864a5f", "abstract"=>"<p>Trophic structure, or the distribution of biomass among producers and consumers, determines key ecosystem values, such as the abundance of infectious, harvestable or conservation target species, and the storage and cycling of carbon and nutrients. There has been much debate on what controls ecosystem trophic structure, yet the answer is still elusive. Here we show that the nutritional quality of primary producers controls the trophic structure of ecosystems. By increasing the efficiency of trophic transfer, higher producer nutritional quality results in steeper ecosystem trophic structure, and those changes are more pronounced in terrestrial than in aquatic ecosystems probably due to the more stringent nutritional limitation of terrestrial herbivores. These results explain why ecosystems composed of highly nutritional primary producers feature high consumer productivity, fast energy recycling, and reduced carbon accumulation. Anthropogenic changes in producer nutritional quality, via changes in trophic structure, may alter the values and functions of ecosystems, and those alterations may be more important in terrestrial ecosystems.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/producer-nutritional-quality-controls-ecosystem-trophic-structure", "reader_count"=>169, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>50, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>29, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>35, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>50, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>29, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>41, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>117, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>117}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>41}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "United States"=>8, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>2}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/447297", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/447343"], "description"=>"<div><p>Trophic structure, or the distribution of biomass among producers and consumers, determines key ecosystem values, such as the abundance of infectious, harvestable or conservation target species, and the storage and cycling of carbon and nutrients. There has been much debate on what controls ecosystem trophic structure, yet the answer is still elusive. Here we show that the nutritional quality of primary producers controls the trophic structure of ecosystems. By increasing the efficiency of trophic transfer, higher producer nutritional quality results in steeper ecosystem trophic structure, and those changes are more pronounced in terrestrial than in aquatic ecosystems probably due to the more stringent nutritional limitation of terrestrial herbivores. These results explain why ecosystems composed of highly nutritional primary producers feature high consumer productivity, fast energy recycling, and reduced carbon accumulation. Anthropogenic changes in producer nutritional quality, via changes in trophic structure, may alter the values and functions of ecosystems, and those alterations may be more important in terrestrial ecosystems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nutritional", "controls", "trophic"], "article_id"=>148155, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Just Cebrian", "Jonathan B. Shurin", "Elizabeth T. Borer", "Bradley J. Cardinale", "Jacqueline T. Ngai", "Melinda D. Smith", "William F. Fagan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Producer_Nutritional_Quality_Controls_Ecosystem_Trophic_Structure/148155", "title"=>"Producer Nutritional Quality Controls Ecosystem Trophic Structure", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-03-20 02:15:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/903696"], "description"=>"<p>Gray, white and black circles correspond to carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus units, respectively. Ratios were analyzed with a two way ANOVA with element (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) and system type as the two factors after log-transformation to comply with the assumptions of ANOVA. Ratios varied among elements (P<0.001) and also among system types (P<0.001). Most importantly, the differences among elements depended on the system type considered (P<0.05 for the interaction between element and system type) indicating that, for terrestrial systems, ratios expressed in carbon units tended to be lower than ratios expressed in nitrogen or phosphorus units, but not for aquatic systems.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["herbivore-to-producer", "biomass", "aquatic", "terrestrial"], "article_id"=>574147, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Just Cebrian", "Jonathan B. Shurin", "Elizabeth T. Borer", "Bradley J. Cardinale", "Jacqueline T. Ngai", "Melinda D. Smith", "William F. Fagan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ratio_mean_SD_of_herbivore_to_producer_biomass_H_P_in_g_element_m_8722_2_8758_g_element_m_8722_2_in_aquatic_and_terrestrial_systems_/574147", "title"=>"The ratio (mean±SD) of herbivore-to-producer biomass (H∶P, in g element m<sup>−2</sup> ∶ g element m<sup>−2</sup>) in aquatic and terrestrial systems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-20 01:09:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/903549"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B) The relationships between the ratio of herbivore-to-producer biomass (H∶P, in g C m<sup>−2</sup> ∶ g C m<sup>−2</sup>) and producer nitrogen and phosphorus contents. (C, E) The relationships between herbivore biomass (HB, in g C m<sup>−2</sup>) and producer nitrogen and phosphorus contents. (D, F) The relationships between producer biomass (PB, in g C m<sup>−2</sup>) and producer nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Solid symbols denote aquatic systems: triangles, pelagic systems (phytoplankton as dominant producer); circles, sediment flats (benthic microalgae as dominant producer); squares, macroalgal beds; diamonds, submerged grass meadows (seagrasses or freshwater macrophytes as dominant producer). Open symbols denote terrestrial systems: triangles, marshlands; circles, grasslands; squares, tundra heathlands; diamonds, shrublands and forests. Solid and dashed lines depict the associations for aquatic and terrestrial systems respectively. Analyses were done with the Mixed Model ANOVA: log y = μ+b<sub>1 </sub><i>producer nutrient content</i>+b<sub>2 </sub><i>system cluster</i>+b<sub>3 </sub><i>producer nutrient content x system cluster</i>+b<sub>4 </sub><i>system type</i>+<i>ε</i>, where y is the given dependent variable, μ is a constant term, <i>producer nutrient content</i> is a continuous fixed factor and corresponds to either nitrogen (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929#pone-0004929-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figs. 1 A, C, D</a>) or phosphorus (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929#pone-0004929-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figs. 1 B, E, F</a>), <i>system cluster</i> (aquatic or terrestrial) is a categorical fixed factor, <i>producer nutrient content x system cluster</i> denotes the interaction between these two factors, <i>system type</i> (four types within aquatic systems and four types within terrestrial systems, with each type corresponding to a different symbol) is a categorical random factor, and <i>ε</i> represents unexplained variance. The parameters of the Mixed Model ANOVA were estimated with maximum likelihood. The dependent variable was log transformed to comply with the assumptions of ANOVA. The variable <i>producer nutrient content</i> has measurement error, but that error is much smaller than the measurement error in any of the dependent variables, thereby allowing for the use of the model <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929#pone.0004929-Cebrian1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929#pone.0004929-Zar1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>. We tested for the significance of <i>producer nutrient content</i>, <i>system cluster</i> and their interaction after accounting for the effect of <i>system type</i>. The ratio of herbivore-to-producer biomass (H∶P, in g C m<sup>−2</sup> ∶ g C m<sup>−2</sup>) increased with higher <i>producer nutrient content</i> (P<0.001 for <i>producer nitrogen content</i>; P<0.001 for <i>producer phosphorus content</i>), and the rate of increase was faster for terrestrial than for aquatic systems (P<0.05 for the interaction between <i>producer nitrogen content</i> and <i>system cluster</i>; P<0.05 for the interaction between <i>producer phosphorus content</i> and <i>system cluster</i>). Herbivore biomass (HB, in g C m<sup>−2</sup>) was unrelated to <i>producer nutrient content</i> (P = 0.68 for <i>producer nitrogen content</i>; P = 0.64 for <i>producer phosphorus content</i>) within aquatic or terrestrial systems (P = 0.83 for the interaction between <i>producer nitrogen content</i> and <i>system cluster</i>; P = 0.45 for the interaction between <i>producer phosphorus content</i> and <i>system cluster</i>). Producer biomass (PB, in g C m<sup>−2</sup>) decreased with higher <i>producer nutrient content</i> (P<0.001 for <i>producer nitrogen content</i>; P<0.01 for <i>producer phosphorus content</i>). The rate of decrease in producer biomass with higher <i>producer nitrogen content</i> was faster, albeit only marginally, for terrestrial than for aquatic systems (P = 0.06 for the interaction between <i>producer nitrogen content</i> and <i>system cluster</i>). Producer biomass also decreased faster with higher <i>producer phosphorus content</i> in terrestrial than in aquatic systems, but that difference was driven by the confined distribution of grasslands at the low end of the association for terrestrial systems. In fact, the interaction between <i>producer phosphorus content</i> and <i>system cluster</i> was significant (P<0.05) when the effect of <i>system type</i> was not accounted for in the Mixed Model ANOVA, but not so (P = 0.84) when that effect was accounted for. As such, we do not depict the association lines in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929#pone-0004929-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1F</a> since the lines represent significant differences in slope between system clusters after accounting for the effect of system type, which is not the case here.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trophic"], "article_id"=>574007, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Just Cebrian", "Jonathan B. Shurin", "Elizabeth T. Borer", "Bradley J. Cardinale", "Jacqueline T. Ngai", "Melinda D. Smith", "William F. Fagan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004929.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relationship_between_trophic_structure_and_producer_nutrient_content_/574007", "title"=>"The relationship between trophic structure and producer nutrient content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-03-20 01:06:47"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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