Doom and Boom on a Resilient Reef: Climate Change, Algal Overgrowth and Coral Recovery
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{"title"=>"Doom and Boom on a Resilient Reef: Climate Change, Algal Overgrowth and Coral Recovery", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Guillermo", "last_name"=>"Diaz-Pulido", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602495853"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurence J.", "last_name"=>"McCook", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701840015"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Dove", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005822223"}, {"first_name"=>"Ray", "last_name"=>"Berkelmans", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603545385"}, {"first_name"=>"George", "last_name"=>"Roff", "scopus_author_id"=>"13409006000"}, {"first_name"=>"David I.", "last_name"=>"Kline", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201356222"}, {"first_name"=>"Scarla", "last_name"=>"Weeks", "scopus_author_id"=>"35588922700"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard D.", "last_name"=>"Evans", "scopus_author_id"=>"55523524600"}, {"first_name"=>"David H.", "last_name"=>"Williamson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402435346"}, {"first_name"=>"Ove", "last_name"=>"Hoegh-Guldberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643606100"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"67649221238", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005239", "pui"=>"368587407", "pmid"=>"19384423", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67649221238", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"82d7a618-28e3-3b02-906a-8c106a8ecb6e", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/doom-boom-resilient-reef-climate-change-algal-overgrowth-coral-recovery", "reader_count"=>459, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>95, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>99, "Student > Postgraduate"=>23, "Student > Master"=>93, "Other"=>20, "Student > Bachelor"=>63, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>14, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>95, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901214"], "description"=>"<p>Herbivore density data from the study sites; data are square root transformed, means+/−SE of 5 transects per site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "ecology/community ecology and biodiversity", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/marine and freshwater ecology", "ecology/plant-environment interactions", "ecology/population ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences/conservation science", "marine and aquatic sciences/climate change", "marine and aquatic sciences/ecology"], "article_id"=>571656, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Herbivore_abundance_/571656", "title"=>"Herbivore abundance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:27:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900791"], "description"=>"<p>Branches of <i>Acropora</i> corals died after bleaching and were subsequently colonized by a variety of benthic algae. Remnant coral tissue at the base of the coral colonies regrew upward and deposited new skeleton along the old dead coral branch, overgrowing A) algal turfs (arrows), B) fleshy seaweed <i>Lobophora variegata</i>, and C) crustose coralline algae. D) Coral tissue has all but completely overgrown the colonizing algae. E) Thin section of coral showing benthic algae sandwiched between old coral skeleton and a thin layer of new skeleton. Examination using a compound microscope showed that coral tissue overgrew a range of algal types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algal"], "article_id"=>571242, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coral_recovery_following_algal_overgrowth_/571242", "title"=>"Coral recovery following algal overgrowth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:20:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901088"], "description"=>"<p>Abundance of <i>L. variegata</i> consistently shows strong declines during the austral summer. Data are means±SE of 5 replicate quadrats.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["goold", "inshore"], "article_id"=>571535, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seasonality_in_Lobophora_variegata_on_Goold_Island_inshore_central_GBR_/571535", "title"=>"Seasonality in <i>Lobophora variegata</i> on Goold Island, inshore central GBR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:25:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901383"], "description"=>"<p>Data were Arc-sin transformed. Interactions between date and site were significant; therefore, data were analysed for site effects within dates and date effects within sites, using a one-way ANOVAs and Tukey's post-hoc comparisons (results not shown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["analyses", "variance", "sampling", "seaweed", "algal", "turfs", "crustose", "calcareous", "algae"], "article_id"=>571821, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_way_analyses_of_variance_for_the_effects_of_sampling_date_and_site_on_cover_of_corals_brown_seaweed_Lobophora_variegata_algal_turfs_and_crustose_calcareous_algae_CCA_/571821", "title"=>"Two-way analyses of variance for the effects of sampling date and site on % cover of corals, brown seaweed <i>Lobophora variegata</i>, algal turfs and crustose calcareous algae (CCA).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:30:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/445734"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (<em>Lobophora variegata</em>), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["doom", "resilient", "algal", "overgrowth", "coral"], "article_id"=>147853, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Doom_and_Boom_on_a_Resilient_Reef_Climate_Change_Algal_Overgrowth_and_Coral_Recovery/147853", "title"=>"Doom and Boom on a Resilient Reef: Climate Change, Algal Overgrowth and Coral Recovery", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 02:10:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900585"], "description"=>"<p>A) Bleached corals in the Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef, during the mass bleaching event in January 2006. The fleshy brown seaweed <i>Lobophora variegata</i> grows at the base of the branches of <i>Acropora</i> spp. corals. B) <i>L. variegata</i> is released from space competition by coral mortality and overgrows coral skeletons as well as some coral tissue, causing an unprecedented algal bloom. C) Seaweed bloom on North Keppel Island after coral bleaching. The reef has lost its structural complexity and has experienced little coral recovery. D) Recovered reef on Barren Island, showing high coral cover and low cover of seaweeds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algal", "overgrowth", "corals", "coral"], "article_id"=>571034, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coral_bleaching_algal_overgrowth_of_corals_and_coral_recovery_/571034", "title"=>"Coral bleaching, algal overgrowth of corals and coral recovery.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:17:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/901345"], "description"=>"<p>Data were log transformed. H: Statistic of the Kruskal-Wallis test; df: degrees of freedom. Dates included in the analyses are: Aug 06, Dec 06, Feb 07, Jun 07, Aug 07, Jan 08. Data missing for Dec 06 in North Keppel Island.</p>*<p>Recruit density was slightly higher in February 2007 but declined afterwards.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["one-way", "analyses", "variance", "sampling", "coral", "recruits"], "article_id"=>571791, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_one_way_analyses_of_variance_for_the_effects_of_sampling_date_on_density_of_coral_recruits_of_four_islands_/571791", "title"=>"Kruskal-Wallis one-way analyses of variance for the effects of sampling date on density of coral recruits of four islands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:29:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900975"], "description"=>"<p>Calcification rates of <i>Acropora millepora</i> at North Keppel Island and Davies Reef (an offshore reef). Data are means±SE (n = 12 for North Keppel Island and 8 for Davies Reef), and show unusually high growth rates in the Keppel Islands.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "ecology/community ecology and biodiversity", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/marine and freshwater ecology", "ecology/plant-environment interactions", "ecology/population ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences/conservation science", "marine and aquatic sciences/climate change", "marine and aquatic sciences/ecology"], "article_id"=>571421, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Guillermo Díaz-Pulido", "Laurence J. McCook", "Sophie Dove", "Ray Berkelmans", "George Roff", "David I. Kline", "Scarla Weeks", "Richard D. Evans", "David H. Williamson", "Ove Hoegh-Guldberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005239.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coral_growth_calcification_/571421", "title"=>"Coral growth (calcification).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-22 00:23:41"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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