Distribution and Extinction of Ungulates during the Holocene of the Southern Levant
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Distribution and extinction of ungulates during the Holocene of the southern Levant", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ella", "last_name"=>"Tsahar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508284822"}, {"first_name"=>"Ido", "last_name"=>"Izhaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003450931"}, {"first_name"=>"Simcha", "last_name"=>"Lev-Yadun", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005174366"}, {"first_name"=>"Guy", "last_name"=>"Bar-Oz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507839206"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19401760", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005316", "sgr"=>"65549164818", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-65549164818", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"354573380"}, "id"=>"7550dacc-e80f-34cd-8216-78ad0a8a329a", "abstract"=>"The southern Levant (Israel, Palestinian Authority and Jordan) has been continuously and extensively populated by succeeding phases of human cultures for the past 15,000 years. The long human impact on the ancient landscape has had great ecological consequences, and has caused continuous and accelerating damage to the natural environment. The rich zooarchaeological data gathered at the area provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes in wild species distribution, and correlate them with human demographic changes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/distribution-extinction-ungulates-during-holocene-southern-levant", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Arts and Humanities"=>18, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>18}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Lebanon"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Brazil"=>1, "Israel"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900213"], "description"=>"<p>Three species became extinct during the Iron Age (1, <i>Hippopotamus amphibius</i>; 2, <i>Bos primigenius</i>; 3, <i>Alcelaphus buselaphus</i>), one species during the 12th century CE (4, <i>Cervus elaphus</i>), and six species during the 19th century CE (5, <i>Dama mesopotamica</i>; 6, <i>Capra aegagrus</i>; 7, <i>Capreolus capreolus</i>; 8, <i>Gazella subgutturosa</i>; 18 9, <i>Equus hemionus</i>; 10, <i>Oryx leucoryx</i>). Four species still exist (11, <i>Sus scrofa</i>; 12,<i>Gazella gazelle</i>; 13, <i>Capra ibex nubiana</i>; 14, <i>Gazella dorcas</i>). Because only one species become extinct during the 12th century this period could not be included in the ANOVA analysis. Horizontal broken line indicates average body mass of the 14 ungulates in Natufian Period (13,000–9,500 years BCE). Letters above bars indicate a significant difference between groups (Bonferroni Multiple Comparison Test, P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ungulates", "became", "extinctinct", "586", "mamluk", "19th", "extant", "ungulate"], "article_id"=>570658, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_of_ungulates_that_became_extinctinct_at_end_of_Iron_Age_by_586_BCE_at_end_of_Mamluk_period_12th_century_CE_at_end_of_19th_century_CE_as_well_as_body_mass_of_extant_ungulate_species_/570658", "title"=>"Body mass of ungulates that became extinctinct at end of Iron Age (by 586 BCE), at end of Mamluk period (12th century CE), at end of 19th century CE, as well as body mass of extant ungulate species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:10:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899246"], "description"=>"<p>Domestic species include sheep, goat, cattle, and domestic pig. For each site all bone assemblages with more than 10 NISP are included. Periods and number of bone assemblages: 3. Chalcolithic (n = 25). 4. Early Bronze Age (n = 57). 5. Middle Bronze Age (n = 31). 6. Late Bronze Age (n = 24). 7. Iron Age (n = 88) 8. Persian (n = 16). 9. Hellenistic and Roman (n = 43). 10. Byzantine (n = 16) 11. Crusader and Islamic (n = 19). 12. Mamluk and Ottoman (n = 14).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ungulates", "pigs", "ungulate"], "article_id"=>569703, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratio_of_wild_ungulates_deer_gazelle_aurochs_hartebeest_wild_pigs_and_hippopotamus_to_total_wild_and_domestic_ungulate_species_NISP_found_in_bone_assemblages_/569703", "title"=>"Ratio of wild ungulates (deer, gazelle, aurochs, hartebeest, wild pigs and hippopotamus) to total wild and domestic ungulate species (NISP), found in bone assemblages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 02:41:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/445225", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/445388"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The southern Levant (Israel, Palestinian Authority and Jordan) has been continuously and extensively populated by succeeding phases of human cultures for the past 15,000 years. The long human impact on the ancient landscape has had great ecological consequences, and has caused continuous and accelerating damage to the natural environment. The rich zooarchaeological data gathered at the area provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes in wild species distribution, and correlate them with human demographic changes.</p><h3>Methodology</h3><p>Zoo-archaeological data (382 animal bone assemblages from 190 archaeological sites) from various time periods, habitats and landscapes were compared. The bone assemblages were sorted into 12 major cultural periods. Distribution maps showing the presence of each ungulate species were established for each period.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The first major ungulate extinction occurred during the local Iron Age (1,200–586 BCE), a period characterized by significant human population growth. During that time the last of the largest wild ungulates, the hartebeest (<em>Alcelaphus buselaphus</em>), aurochs (<em>Bos primigenius</em>) and the hippopotamus (<em>Hippopotamus amphibius</em>) became extinct, followed by a shrinking distribution of forest-dwelling cervids. A second major wave of extinction occurred only in the 19th and 20th centuries CE. Furthermore, a negative relationship was found between the average body mass of ungulate species that became extinct during the Holocene and their extinction date. It is thus very likely that the intensified human activity through habitat destruction and uncontrolled hunting were responsible for the two major waves of ungulate extinction in the southern Levant during the late Holocene.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extinction", "ungulates", "holocene", "levant"], "article_id"=>147752, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Distribution_and_Extinction_of_Ungulates_during_the_Holocene_of_the_Southern_Levant/147752", "title"=>"Distribution and Extinction of Ungulates during the Holocene of the Southern Levant", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 02:09:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899154"], "description"=>"<p>Southern Levant area included in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levant", "included"], "article_id"=>569609, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Southern_Levant_area_included_in_this_study_/569609", "title"=>"Southern Levant area included in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 02:40:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899413"], "description"=>"<p>Periods: a. Natufian and Neolithic, b. Chalcolithic, c. Early Bronze Age, d. Middle Bronze Age, e. Late Bronze Age, f. Iron Age, g. Persian, Hellenistic and Roman, h. Byzantine, Crusader and Islamic, i. Mamluk and Ottoman.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "gazelle", "bones", "absent"], "article_id"=>569867, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_gazelle_bones_were_found_full_circles_and_absent_open_circles_/569867", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where gazelle bones were found (full circles) and absent (open circles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 02:44:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899727"], "description"=>"<p>Period abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316#pone-0005316-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "bones"], "article_id"=>570188, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_red_deer_bones_were_found_/570188", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where red deer bones were found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:03:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899505"], "description"=>"<p>The Periods are: a. Natufian and Neolithic, b. Chalcolithic, c. Early Bronze Age, d. Middle Bronze Age, e. Late Bronze Age, f. Iron Age, g. Persian, Hellenistic and Roman, h. Byzantine, Crusader and Early Muslim, i. Late Muslim, Mamluk and Ottoman.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "persian", "fallow", "bones", "absent"], "article_id"=>569965, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_Persian_fallow_deer_bones_were_found_full_circles_and_absent_open_circles_/569965", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where Persian fallow deer bones were found (full circles) and absent (open circles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 02:46:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899320"], "description"=>"<p>For each site all bone assemblages with more than 10 NISP are included. Black – fallow deer, Grey – gazelle, White – others. Periods and number of bone assemblages: 1. Natufian (n = 16), 2. Neolithic (n = 25), 3. Chalcolithic (n = 25), 4. Early Bronze Age (n = 57), 5. Middle Bronze Age (n = 31), 6. Late Bronze Age (n = 24), 7. Iron Age (n = 88), 8. Persian (n = 16), 9. Hellenistic and Roman (n = 43), 10. Byzantine (n = 16), 11. Crusader and Islamic (n = 19), 12. Mamluk and Ottoman (n = 14).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gazelle", "fallow", "ungulate"], "article_id"=>569780, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratio_of_gazelle_and_fallow_deer_to_total_wild_ungulate_species_found_in_bone_assemblages_/569780", "title"=>"Ratio of gazelle and fallow deer to total wild ungulate species found in bone assemblages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 02:43:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900060"], "description"=>"<p>Period abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316#pone-0005316-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "hippopotamus", "bones"], "article_id"=>570518, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_hippopotamus_bones_were_found_/570518", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where hippopotamus bones were found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:08:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899837"], "description"=>"<p>Period abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316#pone-0005316-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "aurochs", "bones"], "article_id"=>570296, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_aurochs_bones_were_found_/570296", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where aurochs bones were found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:04:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899617"], "description"=>"<p>Periods are denoted by letters in figures as follows: Na – Natufian, Ne – Neolithic, Ch – Chalcolithic, EB – Early Bronze Age, MB – Middle Bronze Age, LB – Late Bronze Age, Ir – Iron Age, Per – Persian, By – Byzantine, Cr – Crusader and Early Muslim, Ott – Late Muslim, Mamluk and Ottoman.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "roe", "bones"], "article_id"=>570073, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_roe_deer_bones_were_found_/570073", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where roe deer bones were found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:01:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899936"], "description"=>"<p>Period abbreviations follow <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316#pone-0005316-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "hartebeest", "bones"], "article_id"=>570394, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_sites_where_hartebeest_bones_were_found_/570394", "title"=>"Distribution of sites where hartebeest bones were found.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900278"], "description"=>"*<p>Table according to Levy 1998 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316#pone.0005316-Levy1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zooarchaeological", "levant"], "article_id"=>570740, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ella Tsahar", "Ido Izhaki", "Simcha Lev-Yadun", "Guy Bar-Oz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005316.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_zooarchaeological_data_from_the_southern_Levant_/570740", "title"=>"Distribution of zooarchaeological data from the southern Levant <sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-04-29 00:12:20"}

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Relative Metric

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