Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature
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{"title"=>"Cyanogenesis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is an efficient direct defence in nature", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel J.", "last_name"=>"Ballhorn", "scopus_author_id"=>"8507333300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefanie", "last_name"=>"Kautz", "scopus_author_id"=>"16223917800"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Heil", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101902557"}, {"first_name"=>"Adrian D.", "last_name"=>"Hegeman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602451948"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-65549102112", "sgr"=>"65549102112", "pui"=>"354579482", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"19424497", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005450"}, "id"=>"329b9b1d-4522-3e1f-92e0-fac1e09c4c57", "abstract"=>"In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing 'multiple defence syndromes' rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cyanogenesis-wild-lima-bean-phaseolus-lunatus-l-efficient-direct-defence-nature", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>4, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Mexico"=>2, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899669"], "description"=>"<p>Consumption of leaf area from leaves of different quality (HC = high cyanogenic, LC = low cyanogenic) by both beetle species under different experimental setups (trials 1, 2 and 3; <i>n</i> = 14 trials per setup) was correlated to the HCNp of the individual leaves (Pearson's correlation; <i>P</i><0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hcnp", "feeding"], "article_id"=>570131, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Virology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Daniel J. Ballhorn", "Stefanie Kautz", "Martin Heil", "Adrian D. Hegeman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005450.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_leaf_consumption_vs_HCNp_in_feeding_trials_/570131", "title"=>"Quantitative leaf consumption vs. HCNp in feeding trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:05:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899786"], "description"=>"<p>Results obtained using the GLM (general linear model) for analysis of variance after a multivariate design with ‘HCNp’ and ‘Missing Leaf Area’ (MLA) as variables. Factors were ‘Plant Size’ (i.e. less than 20 leaves vs. 20 leaves and more) and ‘Light Exposure’ (i.e. light vs. shade).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hcnp"], "article_id"=>570246, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Virology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Daniel J. Ballhorn", "Stefanie Kautz", "Martin Heil", "Adrian D. Hegeman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005450.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_plant_size_and_light_exposure_on_HCNp_and_missing_leaf_area_/570246", "title"=>"Effects of plant size and light exposure on HCNp and missing leaf area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899599"], "description"=>"<p>Choice behaviour of both beetle species (<i>C. ruficornis</i> and <i>G. guerreroensis</i>) was tested in feeding trials, in which leaf material of different cyanogenic quality was offered. In trial 1 high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) leaf material was presented to the beetles, whereas trials 2 and 3 served as controls and the beetles were given the choice to select between leaves of similar quality (HC leaves in trial 2 and LC leaves in trial 3), respectively. Data on removed leaf area are means (±s.e.m.) of <i>n</i> = 14 replications per setup.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviour", "insects", "feeding"], "article_id"=>570054, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Virology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Daniel J. Ballhorn", "Stefanie Kautz", "Martin Heil", "Adrian D. Hegeman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005450.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Choice_behaviour_of_insects_in_feeding_trials_/570054", "title"=>"Choice behaviour of insects in feeding trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:05:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899543"], "description"=>"<p>Individual leaves of field-grown lima bean plants (<i>n</i> = 1 leaf of a defined ontogenetic stage per plant; <i>n</i> = 46 plants) were quantitatively analysed for removed leaf area and concentration of cyanogenic precursors (HCNp). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation (<i>P</i><0.01). Individuals in boxes (HC and LC) were selected for the production of clones for consecutive feeding trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hcnp"], "article_id"=>570009, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Virology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Daniel J. Ballhorn", "Stefanie Kautz", "Martin Heil", "Adrian D. Hegeman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005450.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_missing_leaf_area_and_HCNp_in_nature_/570009", "title"=>"Association of missing leaf area and HCNp in nature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:05:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899745"], "description"=>"<p>Included were leaves of different cyanogenic quality (HC and LC) in trial 1 or leaves of similar HCNp (HC leaves in trial 2 and LC leaves in trial 3). Data are means (±s.e.m.). Among treatments and species means of consumed leaf area marked with different letters in the upper panel are significantly different [according to <i>post-hoc</i> analysis after one-way ANOVA (LSD; <i>P</i><0.05)]. A. Total leaf area consumed in feeding trials by both beetle species. B. Total amount of cyanide in ingested leaf material by both beetle species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cyanide", "ingested", "feeding"], "article_id"=>570203, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Virology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Daniel J. Ballhorn", "Stefanie Kautz", "Martin Heil", "Adrian D. Hegeman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005450.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_leaf_consumption_and_amount_of_cyanide_ingested_in_feeding_trials_/570203", "title"=>"Total leaf consumption and amount of cyanide ingested in feeding trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:06:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899478"], "description"=>"<p>Positions of individual plants at the natural site were generated with GPS-data and combined with schematic illustration of vegetation and surrounding land use pattern. Plants of different size and number of leaves were included in the analysis. Individuals in boxes (HC and LC) were selected for the production of clones for consecutive feeding trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/behavioral ecology", "ecology/ecosystem ecology", "plant biology/plant-biotic interactions", "plant biology/plant-environment interactions"], "article_id"=>569931, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Medicine", "Virology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Daniel J. Ballhorn", "Stefanie Kautz", "Martin Heil", "Adrian D. Hegeman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005450.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_illustration_of_the_sample_collection_site_/569931", "title"=>"Schematic illustration of the sample collection site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 06:04:51"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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