Intense Habitat-Specific Fisheries-Induced Selection at the Molecular Pan I Locus Predicts Imminent Collapse of a Major Cod Fishery
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{"title"=>"Intense habitat-specific fisheries-induced selection at the molecular Pan I locus predicts imminent collapse of a major cod fishery", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Einar", "last_name"=>"Árnason", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603825250"}, {"first_name"=>"Ubaldo Benitez", "last_name"=>"Hernandez", "scopus_author_id"=>"26641292100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristján", "last_name"=>"Kristinsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"14420254000"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"354674697", "sgr"=>"66449135189", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"19479037", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-66449135189", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005529", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"f3bbecc5-0dd2-315c-97a1-bf32fb5c829e", "abstract"=>"Predation is a powerful agent in the ecology and evolution of predator and prey. Prey may select multiple habitats whereby different genotypes prefer different habitats. If the predator is also habitat-specific the prey may evolve different habitat occupancy. Drastic changes can occur in the relation of the predator to the evolved prey. Fisheries exert powerful predation and can be a potent evolutionary force. Fisheries-induced selection can lead to phenotypic changes that influence the collapse and recovery of the fishery. However, heritability of the phenotypic traits involved and selection intensities are low suggesting that fisheries-induced evolution occurs at moderate rates at decadal time scales. The Pantophysin I (Pan I) locus in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), representing an ancient balanced polymorphism predating the split of cod and its sister species, is under an unusual mix of balancing and directional selection including current selective sweeps. Here we show that Pan I alleles are highly correlated with depth with a gradient of 0.44% allele frequency change per meter. AA fish are shallow-water and BB deep-water adapted in accordance with behavioral studies using data storage tags showing habitat selection by Pan I genotype. AB fish are somewhat intermediate although closer to AA. Furthermore, using a sampling design covering space and time we detect intense habitat-specific fisheries-induced selection against the shallow-water adapted fish with an average 8% allele frequency change per year within year class. Genotypic fitness estimates (0.08, 0.27, 1.00 of AA, AB, and BB respectively) predict rapid disappearance of shallow-water adapted fish. Ecological and evolutionary time scales, therefore, are congruent. We hypothesize a potential collapse of the fishery. We find that probabilistic maturation reaction norms for Atlantic cod at Iceland show declining length and age at maturing comparable to changes that preceded the collapse of northern cod at Newfoundland, further supporting the hypothesis. We speculate that immediate establishment of large no-take reserves may help avert collapse.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/intense-habitatspecific-fisheriesinduced-selection-molecular-pan-i-locus-predicts-imminent-collapse", "reader_count"=>109, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>81, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>81}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Latvia"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897993"], "description"=>"<p>Genotypic frequencies of 4 and 8 year old predicted by the gam model in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>. Upper and lower are frequencies ±2 standard errors. Weights, <i>U<sub>i</sub></i>, are ratios of frequencies among 8 year old to 4 year old. Ratios of upper to lower and lower to upper frequencies are used for predictions of best-case and worst-case scenarios respectively. The table is arranged accordingly with lower to upper and upper to lower for each genotype. Fitnesses, <i>W<sub>i</sub></i>, are weights scaled to the most fit <i>BB</i> genotype.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genotypic", "weights"], "article_id"=>568448, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_genotypic_frequencies_weights_and_fitnesses_/568448", "title"=>"Predicted genotypic frequencies, weights and fitnesses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:20:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897706"], "description"=>"<p>Spring spawning Atlantic cod at Iceland. Frequency of <i>A</i> allele, <i>p</i><sub>A</sub> (top panel row), and frequencies of <i>AA</i>, <i>AB</i>, and <i>BB</i> genotypes, <i>f<sub>AA</sub></i>, <i>f<sub>AB</sub></i>, and <i>f<sub>BB</sub></i> (panel rows 2–4 respectively). Panels represent year classes arranged most recent to older from left to right in each row. Points • represent observed frequencies; lines represent linear regression of frequency on age.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genotypic", "frequencies", "conditioned"], "article_id"=>568161, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Allelic_and_genotypic_frequencies_at_age_conditioned_on_year_class_/568161", "title"=>"Allelic and genotypic frequencies at age conditioned on year class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:16:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898055"], "description"=>"<p>Statistics of Division in Total, Individuals in Total and Individuals in Division. <i>G</i> is test statistic and <i>P</i> is based on 1000 permutations in all instances. Divisions are the same as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["divisions"], "article_id"=>568516, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_F_statistics_among_divisions_within_depth_classes_/568516", "title"=>"<i>F</i> statistics among divisions within depth classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:21:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898026"], "description"=>"<p>ANOVA table of change of genotypic frequency per year within year class among the <i>AA</i>, <i>AB</i>, and <i>BB</i> genotypes of the <i>Pan</i> I locus in Atlantic cod.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genotypic"], "article_id"=>568485, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ANOVA_table_of_change_of_genotypic_frequency_per_year_within_year_class_/568485", "title"=>"ANOVA table of change of genotypic frequency per year within year class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:21:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897615"], "description"=>"<p>Solid dots and solid lines represent length or age at 50% probability of maturing. Upper and lower open dots and dashed lines represent length or age at 95 and 5% probability of maturing respectively. Lines are linear regression of length or age on cohort. Based on data on mean length, age and maturity ratio from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t003\" target=\"_blank\">table 3</a>.1.4 in Anonymous <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529-Anonymous1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a> (and see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529-Bjrnsson1\" target=\"_blank\">[74]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maturation", "probability", "maturing"], "article_id"=>568074, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probabilistic_maturation_reaction_norms_length_and_age_at_50_probability_of_maturing_on_cohort_/568074", "title"=>"Probabilistic maturation reaction norms: length and age at 50% probability of maturing on cohort.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:14:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897328"], "description"=>"<p>Points (open circles ○) represent frequency at all sampling stations for Atlantic cod in Icelandic Marine Research Institute spring spawning surveys in 2005, 2006, and 2007. Pluses+represent a generalized additive model (gam) smooth fit. Solid dots • represent a generalized linear regression (glm) of allele frequency on depth for depths less than 200 m; glm linear predictor <i>η</i> = 1.297−0.0195depth yields an allele frequency intercept of 78.5% and 34.2% at 100 m, a 44.3% change.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allele"], "article_id"=>567789, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_Pan_I_A_allele_on_mean_depth_m_of_sampling_/567789", "title"=>"Frequency of <i>Pan</i> I <i>A</i> allele on mean depth (m) of sampling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:09:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898143"], "description"=>"<p>Atlantic cod at spring spawning and fall feeding grounds at Iceland. Number of individuals, <i>N</i>, and significant deviations from Hardy Weinberg represented by starred <i>X</i><sup>2</sup> statistics: *: <i>P</i><0.05; **: <i>P</i><0.01;***: <i>P</i><0.001. Frequency of <i>A</i> allele: <i>P<sub>A</sub></i>. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: <i>F</i><sub>IS</sub>. Test statistic: <i>X</i><sup>2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allele", "frequencies", "hardy-weinberg", "deviations", "25", "classes", "atlantic"], "article_id"=>568594, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pan_I_allele_frequencies_and_Hardy_Weinberg_deviations_by_25_m_depth_classes_among_Atlantic_cod_/568594", "title"=>"<i>Pan</i> I allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg deviations by 25 m depth classes among Atlantic cod.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:23:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898108"], "description"=>"<p>Significance <i>P</i> = 0.001 based on 1000 permutations in all instances.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampling", "stations", "divisions", "individuals"], "article_id"=>568565, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_F_statistics_among_divisions_among_sampling_stations_within_divisions_and_among_individuals_within_stations_/568565", "title"=>"Hierarchical <i>F</i> statistics among divisions, among sampling stations within divisions and among individuals within stations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:22:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897812"], "description"=>"<p>Frequencies of <i>AA</i> genotype (red open circles ○, dashed line), <i>AB</i> (magenta pluses +, dotted line), and <i>BB</i> (blue filled circles •, solid line). Lines represent a generalized additive model (gam) smooth fit with quasibinomial link (panel A). Panels B, C and D: gam smooth fit of genotypic frequency on age within year class for the <i>AA</i>, <i>AB</i> and <i>BB</i> genotypes respectively; shaded region represents two standard errors above and below fit. Smooth carries estimated degrees of freedom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frequencies", "years"], "article_id"=>568278, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genotypic_frequencies_on_age_in_years_within_year_class_/568278", "title"=>"Genotypic frequencies on age in years within year class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897926"], "description"=>"<p>Top left panel based on fitness estimates from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a>; top right panel based on fitness estimates from Supplementary <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529.s010\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>; lower left panel based on highest fitness estimates from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a> (a best case scenario); lower right panel based on lowest fitness estimates from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a> (a worst case scenario). Starting frequency of 0.738 assumed based on intercept of gam fit in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>. Years based on a generation time of 4.8 years <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529-rnason1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>. Color codes are black for the <i>A</i> allele and red, magenta, and blue for the <i>AA</i>, <i>AB</i>, and <i>BB</i> genotypes respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allele", "genotypic", "changes", "constant-fitness", "viability"], "article_id"=>568376, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_allele_and_genotypic_frequency_changes_with_a_constant_fitness_viability_model_of_selection_/568376", "title"=>"Predicted allele and genotypic frequency changes with a constant-fitness viability model of selection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:19:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444152", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444268", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444394", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444521", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444613", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444686", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444747", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444796", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444860", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444870", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444884"], "description"=>"<div><p>Predation is a powerful agent in the ecology and evolution of predator and prey. Prey may select multiple habitats whereby different genotypes prefer different habitats. If the predator is also habitat-specific the prey may evolve different habitat occupancy. Drastic changes can occur in the relation of the predator to the evolved prey. Fisheries exert powerful predation and can be a potent evolutionary force. Fisheries-induced selection can lead to phenotypic changes that influence the collapse and recovery of the fishery. However, heritability of the phenotypic traits involved and selection intensities are low suggesting that fisheries-induced evolution occurs at moderate rates at decadal time scales. The Pantophysin I (<em>Pan</em> I) locus in Atlantic cod (<em>Gadus morhua</em>), representing an ancient balanced polymorphism predating the split of cod and its sister species, is under an unusual mix of balancing and directional selection including current selective sweeps. Here we show that <em>Pan</em> I alleles are highly correlated with depth with a gradient of 0.44% allele frequency change per meter. <em>AA</em> fish are shallow-water and <em>BB</em> deep-water adapted in accordance with behavioral studies using data storage tags showing habitat selection by <em>Pan</em> I genotype. <em>AB</em> fish are somewhat intermediate although closer to <em>AA</em>. Furthermore, using a sampling design covering space and time we detect intense habitat-specific fisheries-induced selection against the shallow-water adapted fish with an average 8% allele frequency change per year within year class. Genotypic fitness estimates (0.08, 0.27, 1.00 of <em>AA</em>, <em>AB</em>, and <em>BB</em> respectively) predict rapid disappearance of shallow-water adapted fish. Ecological and evolutionary time scales, therefore, are congruent. We hypothesize a potential collapse of the fishery. We find that probabilistic maturation reaction norms for Atlantic cod at Iceland show declining length and age at maturing comparable to changes that preceded the collapse of northern cod at Newfoundland, further supporting the hypothesis. We speculate that immediate establishment of large no-take reserves may help avert collapse.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["habitat-specific", "fisheries-induced", "molecular", "locus", "imminent", "cod", "fishery"], "article_id"=>147546, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Intense_Habitat_Specific_Fisheries_Induced_Selection_at_the_Molecular_Pan_I_Locus_Predicts_Imminent_Collapse_of_a_Major_Cod_Fishery/147546", "title"=>"Intense Habitat-Specific Fisheries-Induced Selection at the Molecular <em>Pan</em> I Locus Predicts Imminent Collapse of a Major Cod Fishery", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:05:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897519"], "description"=>"<p>Data are from log book records. Parts of these data are the same as figures 9.3.1. and 9.3.2 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529-ICES1\" target=\"_blank\">[62]</a>. Units of effort for different gear are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "ecology/marine and freshwater ecology", "ecology/population ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary and comparative genetics", "genetics and genomics/population genetics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "marine and aquatic sciences/conservation science", "marine and aquatic sciences/climate change", "marine and aquatic sciences/ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences/evolutionary biology", "marine and aquatic sciences/fisheries", "marine and aquatic sciences/genetics, genomics, and barcoding"], "article_id"=>567963, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catch_tons_effort_and_catch_per_unit_effort_CPUE_at_year_for_different_gear_/567963", "title"=>"Catch (tons), effort and catch per unit effort, CPUE, at year for different gear.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:12:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897411"], "description"=>"<p>Areas defined by one degree longitude and one half degree latitude (dotted lines) are each split into four equal sized squares (not shown). Sampling stations within subareas are pooled for frequency estimation. Atlantic cod in Icelandic Marine Research Institute spring spawning surveys in 2005, 2006, and 2007. Color coded divisions based on revised metacod definitions as detailed in paper <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529-Pampoulie1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone.0005529-Jnsdttir1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allele", "squares"], "article_id"=>567869, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_percent_of_the_Pan_I_A_allele_in_squares_within_areas_/567869", "title"=>"Frequency (percent) of the <i>Pan</i> I <i>A</i> allele in squares within areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:11:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898087"], "description"=>"<p>Statistics of Depth in Total, Individuals in Total and Individuals in Depth. <i>G</i> is test statistic and <i>P</i> is based on 1000 permutations in all instances. Depth classes are the same as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529#pone-0005529-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["classes"], "article_id"=>568543, "categories"=>["Marine Biology", "Ecology", "Genetics", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Einar Árnason", "Ubaldo Benitez Hernandez", "Kristján Kristinsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005529.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_F_statistics_among_depth_classes_within_divisions_/568543", "title"=>"<i>F</i> statistics among depth classes within divisions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:22:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"2", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"19", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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Relative Metric

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