Codon Size Reduction as the Origin of the Triplet Genetic Code
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Codon size reduction as the origin of the triplet genetic code", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Pavel V.", "last_name"=>"Baranov", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102193766"}, {"first_name"=>"Maxime", "last_name"=>"Venin", "scopus_author_id"=>"26640834100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gregory", "last_name"=>"Provan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006249142"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19479032", "sgr"=>"66349117421", "pui"=>"354668611", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-66349117421", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005708"}, "id"=>"c99c6083-a1e0-37a2-9c8e-1408131416d0", "abstract"=>"<p>The genetic code appears to be optimized in its robustness to missense errors and frameshift errors. In addition, the genetic code is near-optimal in terms of its ability to carry information in addition to the sequences of encoded proteins. As evolution has no foresight, optimality of the modern genetic code suggests that it evolved from less optimal code variants. The length of codons in the genetic code is also optimal, as three is the minimal nucleotide combination that can encode the twenty standard amino acids. The apparent impossibility of transitions between codon sizes in a discontinuous manner during evolution has resulted in an unbending view that the genetic code was always triplet. Yet, recent experimental evidence on quadruplet decoding, as well as the discovery of organisms with ambiguous and dual decoding, suggest that the possibility of the evolution of triplet decoding from living systems with non-triplet decoding merits reconsideration and further exploration. To explore this possibility we designed a mathematical model of the evolution of primitive digital coding systems which can decode nucleotide sequences into protein sequences. These coding systems can evolve their nucleotide sequences via genetic events of Darwinian evolution, such as point-mutations. The replication rates of such coding systems depend on the accuracy of the generated protein sequences. Computer simulations based on our model show that decoding systems with codons of length greater than three spontaneously evolve into predominantly triplet decoding systems. Our findings suggest a plausible scenario for the evolution of the triplet genetic code in a continuous manner. This scenario suggests an explanation of how protein synthesis could be accomplished by means of long RNA-RNA interactions prior to the emergence of the complex decoding machinery, such as the ribosome, that is required for stabilization and discrimination of otherwise weak triplet codon-anticodon interactions.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/codon-size-reduction-origin-triplet-genetic-code", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "Hong Kong"=>1, "United States"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Turkey"=>1, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/66349117421"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/66349117421?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=66349117421&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=66349117421&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/66349117421", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:66349117421", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-66349117421", "dc:title"=>"Codon size reduction as the origin of the triplet genetic code", "dc:creator"=>"Baranov P.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"4", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"5", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2009-05-27", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"27 May 2009", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005708", "citedby-count"=>"28", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University College Cork", "affiliation-city"=>"Cork", "affiliation-country"=>"Ireland"}], "pubmed-id"=>"19479032", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e5708", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0005708", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"306"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"332"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2009", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"97"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2010", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2011", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"83"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"67"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443746"], "description"=>"<div><p>The genetic code appears to be optimized in its robustness to missense errors and frameshift errors. In addition, the genetic code is near-optimal in terms of its ability to carry information in addition to the sequences of encoded proteins. As evolution has no foresight, optimality of the modern genetic code suggests that it evolved from less optimal code variants. The length of codons in the genetic code is also optimal, as three is the minimal nucleotide combination that can encode the twenty standard amino acids. The apparent impossibility of transitions between codon sizes in a discontinuous manner during evolution has resulted in an unbending view that the genetic code was always triplet. Yet, recent experimental evidence on quadruplet decoding, as well as the discovery of organisms with ambiguous and dual decoding, suggest that the possibility of the evolution of triplet decoding from living systems with non-triplet decoding merits reconsideration and further exploration. To explore this possibility we designed a mathematical model of the evolution of primitive digital coding systems which can decode nucleotide sequences into protein sequences. These coding systems can evolve their nucleotide sequences via genetic events of Darwinian evolution, such as point-mutations. The replication rates of such coding systems depend on the accuracy of the generated protein sequences. Computer simulations based on our model show that decoding systems with codons of length greater than three spontaneously evolve into predominantly triplet decoding systems. Our findings suggest a plausible scenario for the evolution of the triplet genetic code in a continuous manner. This scenario suggests an explanation of how protein synthesis could be accomplished by means of long RNA-RNA interactions prior to the emergence of the complex decoding machinery, such as the ribosome, that is required for stabilization and discrimination of otherwise weak triplet codon-anticodon interactions.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "triplet"], "article_id"=>147468, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Molecular Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Pavel V. Baranov", "Maxime Venin", "Gregory Provan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Codon_Size_Reduction_as_the_Origin_of_the_Triplet_Genetic_Code/147468", "title"=>"Codon Size Reduction as the Origin of the Triplet Genetic Code", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/896838"], "description"=>"<p>A. Population dynamics. During each cycle a population of coding systems undergo two stages, birth (where a number of coding system copies are created according to a replication function ρ) and death (where coding systems are randomly destroyed until their number reaches a certain constant limit O). B. Obtaining the replication function ρ for each coding system. A coding system consists of a single mRNA sequence and a set of tRNA rules that are used to produce a protein sequence. The protein sequence π<sub>i</sub> is aligned to the reference protein sequence π<sub>0</sub>, and a replication function ρ is calculated based on the score of the alignment and the deviation of the coding system size from the average coding system size in the population. See section <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codonevo"], "article_id"=>567294, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Molecular Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Pavel V. Baranov", "Maxime Venin", "Gregory Provan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_outline_of_the_Codonevo_simulations_/567294", "title"=>"An outline of the Codonevo simulations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:01:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/896959"], "description"=>"<p>Each curve correspond to the number of tRNA rules of a particular size (axis y, factored by thousand, K) in the entire population of the coding systems over time (axis x, number of generations factored my million, M). Curves are differentially colored depending on the codon length as the following: black – 9, dark blue – 8; blue – 7; light blue – 6, dark green – 5, light green – 4, red – 3, yellow – 2, violet – 1. Two simulations with different random starting conditions are shown. Small plots in the top right corners of the main plots show the replication rate of coding systems (dark blue) and the size of mRNA sequence (magenta). Supplementary <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708#pone.0005708.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Movie S1</a> shows an animated histogram of codon evolution and mRNA length change for the simulation corresponding to the plot at the bottom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "sizes", "evolving", "coding", "systems", "octuplet"], "article_id"=>567420, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Molecular Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Pavel V. Baranov", "Maxime Venin", "Gregory Provan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dynamics_of_codon_sizes_in_an_evolving_population_of_coding_systems_starting_with_octuplet_genetic_codes_/567420", "title"=>"Dynamics of codon sizes in an evolving population of coding systems starting with octuplet genetic codes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:03:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897094"], "description"=>"<p>The same parameter values were used in all simulations within each individual panel with the exception of the parameters corresponding to the <i>x</i> axis. Each data point on the graphs corresponds to the number of generations that is required for a population containing quadruplet tRNA rules to reach a state with equal number of quadruplet and triplet tRNA rules. Each data point represents the mean value for 10 simulations with different random starting conditions; error bars indicate the standard deviations of the distributions obtained.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "mrna", "parameter", "coding", "replication"], "article_id"=>567553, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Molecular Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Pavel V. Baranov", "Maxime Venin", "Gregory Provan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_on_the_speed_of_codon_length_evolution_of_A_mRNA_length_and_B_the_parameter_k_the_contribution_of_coding_system_size_to_the_replication_function_/567553", "title"=>"Effect on the speed of codon length evolution of (A) mRNA length, and (B) the parameter <i>k</i> (the contribution of coding system size to the replication function).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:05:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897184"], "description"=>"<p>The model considers the possibility that initially dipeptide molecules in the RNA World were synthesized <i>via</i> peptidyl transfer between two interacting amino acid synthesizing ribozymes (shown as squares with attached letter symbols). Such encoding could be used to encode long polypeptides containing short amino acid repeats. A misfolded form of a ribozyme containing regions of complementarity to other ribozymes could be used as a template for the association of other ribozymes. Their combination and ligation would lead to the formation of longer templates capable of encoding a variety of complex protein molecules. The highlighted area of the scheme shows gradual reduction in the size of complementary interactions, a process modeled in the computer simulations described in this work.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["codon", "triplet"], "article_id"=>567643, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Molecular Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Pavel V. Baranov", "Maxime Venin", "Gregory Provan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_codon_size_reduction_hypothesis_of_the_triplet_genetic_code_origin_/567643", "title"=>"The codon size reduction hypothesis of the triplet genetic code origin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:07:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/897287"], "description"=>"<p>The function (see equation {3}) ensures infertility of coding systems producing protein sequences that are less than 70% identical to the reference sequence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pseudo-step"], "article_id"=>567750, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Molecular Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Pavel V. Baranov", "Maxime Venin", "Gregory Provan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005708.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_the_pseudo_step_function_966_for_calculating_protein_fitness_/567750", "title"=>"Plot of the pseudo-step function φ for calculating protein fitness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-27 02:09:10"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"33", "unique-ip"=>"32", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"26", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"65", "unique-ip"=>"59", "pdf"=>"13", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"40", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"38", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"27", "unique-ip"=>"33", "pdf"=>"15", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"20", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"19", "figure"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "unique-ip"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"22", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"4", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"9", "unique-ip"=>"25", "figure"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"23", "unique-ip"=>"23", "pdf"=>"14", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"22", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"4", "unique-ip"=>"18", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"15", "unique-ip"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2010", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"14", "year"=>"2010", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"15", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"28", "unique-ip"=>"28", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"35", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"35", "figure"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"24", "unique-ip"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"11", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"13", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"13", "unique-ip"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"5", "unique-ip"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"6", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"26", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"8", "unique-ip"=>"22", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"28", "unique-ip"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "year"=>"2011", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"41", "year"=>"2011", "pdf"=>"3", "unique-ip"=>"20", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"11", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"10", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"17", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"16", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2012", "figure"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"7", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"7", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"46", "unique-ip"=>"49", "pdf"=>"35", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"23", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"10", "unique-ip"=>"22", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"25", "unique-ip"=>"23", "pdf"=>"13", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"28", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"34", "figure"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"17", "unique-ip"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"3", "full-text"=>"32", "year"=>"2009", "pdf"=>"6", "unique-ip"=>"35", "figure"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "full-text"=>"18", "unique-ip"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "full-text"=>"8", "year"=>"2012", "pdf"=>"2", "unique-ip"=>"8", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2009-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2009-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[349, 614, 744, 851, 955, 1059, 1167, 1262, 1352, 1431, 1516, 1593, 1668, 1746, 1817, 1883, 1950, 2017, 2075, 2141, 2198, 2254, 2313, 2368, 2424, 2474, 2534, 2591, 2651, 2710, 2776, 2837, 2892, 2953, 3014, 3072, 3130, 3186, 3251, 3307, 3366, 3427, 3500, 3561, 3627, 3688, 3759, 3821, 3888, 3950, 4010, 4070, 4131, 4189, 4242, 4307, 4370, 4431, 4491, 4549, 4608]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[336, 588, 721, 826, 931, 1029, 1138, 1224, 1311, 1395, 1477, 1555, 1632, 1704, 1774, 1847, 1919, 1987, 2039, 2089, 2149, 2204, 2264, 2319, 2370, 2424, 2481, 2535, 2593, 2645, 2702, 2765, 2816, 2865, 2932, 2992, 3045, 3105, 3159, 3208, 3259, 3316, 3374, 3430, 3490, 3542, 3602, 3654, 3720, 3783, 3851, 3919, 3981, 4038, 4096, 4151, 4197, 4235, 4297, 4372, 4437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[422, 680, 795, 921, 1012, 1113, 1216, 1296, 1396, 1468, 1545, 1617, 1701, 1770, 1872, 1951, 2013, 2071, 2118, 2171, 2251, 2290, 2345, 2401, 2471, 2528, 2576, 2634, 2702, 2776, 2840, 2897, 2962, 3046, 3101, 3141, 3222, 3292, 3342, 3436, 3483, 3533, 3604, 3662, 3804, 3843, 3919, 3979, 4043, 4119, 4170, 4198, 4285, 4336, 4402, 4455, 4522, 4607, 4649, 4668, 4713]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[334, 613, 751, 863, 964, 1078, 1181, 1270, 1358, 1443, 1536, 1616, 1690, 1768, 1826, 1902, 1969, 2031, 2095, 2149, 2202, 2258, 2305, 2349, 2417, 2482, 2541, 2598, 2662, 2720, 2768, 2832, 2897, 2947, 2998, 3058, 3121, 3175, 3235, 3292, 3368, 3442, 3507, 3563, 3621, 3676, 3736, 3802, 3852, 3922, 3977, 4025, 4071, 4141, 4199, 4258, 4316, 4376, 4422, 4467, 4518]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts