Female Genitalia Concealment Promotes Intimate Male Courtship in a Water Strider
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{"title"=>"Female genitalia concealment promotes intimate male courtship in a water strider", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chang S.", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"36494680300"}, {"first_name"=>"Piotr G.", "last_name"=>"Jablonski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005935011"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67649228016", "sgr"=>"67649228016", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005793", "pmid"=>"19516886", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "pui"=>"354774217"}, "id"=>"1f7654d4-7d8f-3ad7-b22b-217d32a845c8", "abstract"=>"Violent coercive mating initiation is typical for animals with sexual conflict over mating. In these species, the coevolutionary arms-race between female defenses against coercive mating and male counter-adaptations for increased mating success leads to coevolutionary chases of male and female traits that influence the mating. It has been controversial whether one of the sexes can evolve traits that allow them to \"win\" this arms race. Here, we use morphological analysis (traditional and scanning electron micrographs), laboratory experiments and comparative methods to show how females of a species characterized by typical coercive mating initiation appear to \"win\" a particular stage of the sexual conflict by evolving morphology to hide their genitalia from direct, forceful access by males. In an apparent response to the female morphological adaptation, males of this species added to their typically violent coercive mounting of the female new post-mounting, pre-copulatory courtship signals produced by tapping the water's surface with the mid-legs. These courtship signals are intimate in the sense that they are aimed at the female, on whom the male is already mounted. Females respond to the signals by exposing their hidden genitalia for copulatory intromission. Our results indicate that the apparent victory of coevolutionary arms race by one sex in terms of morphology may trigger evolution of a behavioral phenotype in the opposite sex.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/female-genitalia-concealment-promotes-intimate-male-courtship-water-strider", "reader_count"=>41, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443571", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443586", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443598", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443612", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443623", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443642", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/443664"], "description"=>"<div><p>Violent coercive mating initiation is typical for animals with sexual conflict over mating. In these species, the coevolutionary arms-race between female defenses against coercive mating and male counter-adaptations for increased mating success leads to coevolutionary chases of male and female traits that influence the mating. It has been controversial whether one of the sexes can evolve traits that allow them to “win” this arms race. Here, we use morphological analysis (traditional and scanning electron micrographs), laboratory experiments and comparative methods to show how females of a species characterized by typical coercive mating initiation appear to “win” a particular stage of the sexual conflict by evolving morphology to hide their genitalia from direct, forceful access by males. In an apparent response to the female morphological adaptation, males of this species added to their typically violent coercive mounting of the female new post-mounting, pre-copulatory courtship signals produced by tapping the water's surface with the mid-legs. These courtship signals are intimate in the sense that they are aimed at the female, on whom the male is already mounted. Females respond to the signals by exposing their hidden genitalia for copulatory intromission. Our results indicate that the apparent victory of coevolutionary arms race by one sex in terms of morphology may trigger evolution of a behavioral phenotype in the opposite sex.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genitalia", "concealment", "promotes", "courtship", "strider"], "article_id"=>147438, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Chang S. Han", "Piotr G. Jablonski"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Female_Genitalia_Concealment_Promotes_Intimate_Male_Courtship_in_a_Water_Strider/147438", "title"=>"Female Genitalia Concealment Promotes Intimate Male Courtship in a Water Strider", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-06-10 02:03:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895403"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic drawings of ventral views of abdominal tips of (A) female <i>G. lacustris</i>, (B) female <i>G. gracilicornis</i>, (C) male <i>G. lacustris</i> and (D) male <i>G. gracilicornis</i>. Drawing (B) corresponds to (E) SEM image of the posterior view of a partially inflated female genital segment with gonocoxae 1 spread apart and the ovipositor tube visible. G - genitalia; Gx1 - gonocoxa 1; S6 - sixth segment; S7 - seventh segment; Ov - ovipositor; Vo - vulvar opening. Scale bar: 0.1 mm. (A)-(D) were modified from Andersen <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793#pone.0005793-Andersen2\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>. The broken lines schematically indicate the difference between a typical Gerridae and <i>G. gracilicornis</i> in the portion of S8 that is hidden within S7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["segments", "gerris"], "article_id"=>565863, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chang S. Han", "Piotr G. Jablonski"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genital_segments_in_a_typical_Gerris_and_in_G_gracilicornis_/565863", "title"=>"Genital segments in a typical Gerris and in <i>G. gracilicornis.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-10 01:37:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895502"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scanning electron micrographs of partially inflated genital segment of female <i>Gerris gracilicornis</i>. A, anal opening; Gx1, gonocoxa 1; Go1, gonapophysis 1; Go2, gonapophysis 2; Ov, ovipositor; P, proctiger; Vo, vulvar opening. Scale bar: 0.2 mm. (B)-(G) Sequence of genitalia inflation of female <i>Gerris gracilicornis</i> in a lateral view. (B) un-inflated gonocoxae 1 in segment 7. Gx1, gonocoxa 1; S6, segment 6; S7, segment 7. (C)∼(F) represent spreading out of gonocoxae 1 with protruding of the ovipositor (gonapophyses). Arrow head indicates the vulvar opening. (G) represents fully inflated female genitalia with protruded ovipositor (Ov). In B-G the body was squeezed to imitate the protrusion observed during mating interactions. (H): Copulating pair of <i>Gerris gracilicornis</i>. (I): Interdigitation of male and female genitalia. The phallus is inserted and clasped between the female's gonapophyses. The phallus enters the oviposition tube through the vulvar opening between the two gonapophyses 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genitalia", "anatomy", "mating", "interactions"], "article_id"=>565957, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chang S. Han", "Piotr G. Jablonski"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Role_of_female_genitalia_anatomy_in_mating_interactions_of_G_gracilicornis_/565957", "title"=>"Role of female genitalia anatomy in mating interactions of <i>G. gracilicornis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-10 01:39:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895653"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of (A) Grasping signals, (B) Mounting signals, and (C) Attachment signals. Black dots above the waveform displays of ripple signals indicate the moment the mounting male's mid-legs hit the water surface. The ripple wave is produced on the water's surface by male mid-legs as well as by movements of male and female bodies induced by male mid-leg movement. (D) Effect of male pre-copulatory signals on courtship duration; C – control treatment (22 unmanipulated females; male signals present); nBF – “non-effective bar” treatment (21 females with a bar attached along her thorax; male signals present); BF – “w-bar” treatment (19 females with a w-bar attached across thorax for blocking male signals). Means andSE are shown. * <i>p</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["signaling"], "article_id"=>566110, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chang S. Han", "Piotr G. Jablonski"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Male_signaling_and_its_function_in_G_gracilicornis_/566110", "title"=>"Male signaling and its function in <i>G. gracilicornis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-10 01:41:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895855"], "description"=>"<p>Changes of the color of branches represent the evolution of mating types. Squares at the tips of the terminal branches indicate current mating types. Numbers beside the terminal branches are mean S8/S6 ratios of species (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793#pone.0005793.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>). Ancestral S8/S6 ratios at each node were produced by PGLS method using COMPARE 4.6b <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793#pone.0005793-Martins1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>. Triangles (pointing up) indicate significant increases in S8/S6 ratio during evolution. Inverted triangles (triangles pointing down) indicate significant decreases in S8/S6 ratio. Pictures of female abdominal tips were modified from Andersen <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793#pone.0005793-Andersen2\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>, Andersen & Spence <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793#pone.0005793-Andersen3\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a> and Stichel <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793#pone.0005793-Stichel1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>. DC, direct coercive mating; P1, Persuasive mating type 1; P2, Persuasive mating type 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "mating", "types"], "article_id"=>566317, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chang S. Han", "Piotr G. Jablonski"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005793.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypothetical_phylogenetic_history_of_mating_types_and_S8_S6_ratio_in_Gerridae_/566317", "title"=>"Hypothetical phylogenetic history of mating types and S8/S6 ratio in Gerridae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-10 01:45:17"}

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Relative Metric

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