The Alliance Hypothesis for Human Friendship
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{"title"=>"The alliance hypothesis for human friendship", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"DeScioli", "scopus_author_id"=>"15841527000"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Kurzban", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602838403"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"354694484", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005802", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-66749175157", "pmid"=>"19492066", "sgr"=>"66749175157"}, "id"=>"14802910-c94d-3d30-8206-dda5a64f9cb9", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Exploration of the cognitive systems underlying human friendship will be advanced by identifying the evolved functions these systems perform. Here we propose that human friendship is caused, in part, by cognitive mechanisms designed to assemble support groups for potential conflicts. We use game theory to identify computations about friends that can increase performance in multi-agent conflicts. This analysis suggests that people would benefit from: 1) ranking friends, 2) hiding friend-ranking, and 3) ranking friends according to their own position in partners' rankings. These possible tactics motivate the hypotheses that people possess egocentric and allocentric representations of the social world, that people are motivated to conceal this information, and that egocentric friend-ranking is determined by allocentric representations of partners' friend-rankings (more than others' traits).\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report results from three studies that confirm predictions derived from the alliance hypothesis. Our main empirical finding, replicated in three studies, was that people's rankings of their ten closest friends were predicted by their own perceived rank among their partners' other friends. This relationship remained strong after controlling for a variety of factors such as perceived similarity, familiarity, and benefits.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the alliance hypothesis merits further attention as a candidate explanation for human friendship.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/alliance-hypothesis-human-friendship", "reader_count"=>152, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>65, "Social Sciences"=>23, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>23}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>65}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>6}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>3, "Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "China"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895750"], "description"=>"<p>Bar values represent the public minus private difference divided by private points to give the percent change.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aggregate", "allocations", "caused"], "article_id"=>566208, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Peter DeScioli", "Robert Kurzban"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005802.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_change_in_aggregate_point_allocations_caused_by_the_public_manipulation_/566208", "title"=>"The change in aggregate point allocations caused by the public manipulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-03 01:43:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444173"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Exploration of the cognitive systems underlying human friendship will be advanced by identifying the evolved functions these systems perform. Here we propose that human friendship is caused, in part, by cognitive mechanisms designed to assemble support groups for potential conflicts. We use game theory to identify computations about friends that can increase performance in multi-agent conflicts. This analysis suggests that people would benefit from: 1) ranking friends, 2) hiding friend-ranking, and 3) ranking friends according to their own position in partners' rankings. These possible tactics motivate the hypotheses that people possess <em>egocentric</em> and <em>allocentric</em> representations of the social world, that people are motivated to conceal this information, and that egocentric friend-ranking is determined by allocentric representations of partners' friend-rankings (more than others' traits).</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We report results from three studies that confirm predictions derived from the alliance hypothesis. Our main empirical finding, replicated in three studies, was that people's rankings of their ten closest friends were predicted by their own perceived rank among their partners' other friends. This relationship remained strong after controlling for a variety of factors such as perceived similarity, familiarity, and benefits.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our results suggest that the alliance hypothesis merits further attention as a candidate explanation for human friendship.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>147553, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Peter DeScioli", "Robert Kurzban"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005802", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Alliance_Hypothesis_for_Human_Friendship/147553", "title"=>"The Alliance Hypothesis for Human Friendship", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-06-03 02:05:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895869"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Mean and standard deviation for properties of participants’ friendships.</p>a<p>The range across all three studies.</p>b<p>Same-sex = 1, opposite-sex = 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary biology/animal behavior", "evolutionary biology/human evolution", "neuroscience/psychology", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>566326, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Peter DeScioli", "Robert Kurzban"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005802.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_Statistics_for_Friendship_Properties_/566326", "title"=>"Descriptive Statistics for Friendship Properties.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-06-03 01:45:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895818"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Effect tests for ordinal logistic model of friend-rank. Friend-rank and perceived rank variables were transformed by multiplying by −1.</p>a<p>Standardized logistic regression coefficient. The exponential of <i>β</i> is the change in the odds of being ranked a better friend for each unit (<i>SD</i>) increase in the associated predictor.</p>*<p><i>p</i><.05. **<i>p</i><.01. ***<i>p</i><.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["logistic"], "article_id"=>566280, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Peter DeScioli", "Robert Kurzban"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005802.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ordinal_Logistic_Model_of_Friend_Rank_/566280", "title"=>"Ordinal Logistic Model of Friend-Rank", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-06-03 01:44:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895843"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Mean (<i>SD</i>) values across participants for correlations between each variable and friend-rank. Friend-rank and perceived rank variables were transformed by multiplying by -1.</p>a<p>Study 1 means are significantly different (Bonferroni corrected) from zero except frequency, intelligence, and attractiveness.</p>b<p>Study 2 means are significant except attractiveness.</p>c<p>All Study 3 means are significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary biology/animal behavior", "evolutionary biology/human evolution", "neuroscience/psychology", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>566298, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Peter DeScioli", "Robert Kurzban"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005802.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_with_Friend_Rank_/566298", "title"=>"Correlations with Friend-Rank.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-06-03 01:44:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/895676"], "description"=>"<p>The null hypothesis that people do not rank their closest friends predicts a flat line at 10 points.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allocations"], "article_id"=>566140, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Peter DeScioli", "Robert Kurzban"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005802.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_point_allocations_by_friend_rank_/566140", "title"=>"Mean (<i>SD</i>) point allocations by friend-rank.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-06-03 01:42:20"}

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