Functional Imaging of Stimulus Convergence in Amygdalar Neurons during Pavlovian Fear Conditioning
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{"title"=>"Functional imaging of stimulus convergence in amygdalar neurons during pavlovian fear conditioning", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sabiha K.", "last_name"=>"Barot", "scopus_author_id"=>"11939677400"}, {"first_name"=>"Ain", "last_name"=>"Chung", "scopus_author_id"=>"35861510600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeansok J.", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"7601381258"}, {"first_name"=>"Ilene L.", "last_name"=>"Bernstein", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202471294"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67650249742", "pmid"=>"19582153", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006156", "pui"=>"354885406", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"67650249742"}, "id"=>"63e44d51-a96b-3b8b-ac43-574acd96aecd", "abstract"=>"Based on the pattern of Arc activation seen in conditioning and control groups, we propose that a key requirement for CS-US convergence onto BLA neurons is the potentiation of US responding by prior exposure to a novel CS. Our results also support the view that contextual fear memories are encoded in the amygdala and that the role of dorsal hippocampus is to process and transmit contextual CS information.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/functional-imaging-stimulus-convergence-amygdalar-neurons-during-pavlovian-fear-conditioning", "reader_count"=>81, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Philosophy"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>39}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441865", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441892"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Associative conditioning is a ubiquitous form of learning throughout the animal kingdom and fear conditioning is one of the most widely researched models for studying its neurobiological basis. Fear conditioning is also considered a model system for understanding phobias and anxiety disorders. A fundamental issue in fear conditioning regards the existence and location of neurons in the brain that receive convergent information about the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) during the acquisition of conditioned fear memory. Convergent activation of neurons is generally viewed as a key event for fear learning, yet there has been almost no direct evidence of this critical event in the mammalian brain.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Here, we used <em>A</em>rc cellular <em><u>c</u></em>ompartmental <em><u>a</u></em>nalysis of <em><u>t</u></em>emporal gene transcription by <em><u>f</u></em>luorescence <em><u>i</u></em>n <em>s</em>itu <em><u>h</u></em>ybridization (catFISH) to identify neurons activated during single trial contextual fear conditioning in rats. To conform to temporal requirements of catFISH analysis we used a novel delayed contextual fear conditioning protocol which yields significant single- trial fear conditioning with temporal parameters amenable to catFISH analysis. Analysis yielded clear evidence that a population of BLA neurons receives convergent CS and US information at the time of the learning, that this only occurs when the CS-US arrangement is supportive of the learning, and that this process requires <em>N</em>-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. In contrast, CS-US convergence was not observed in dorsal hippocampus.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Based on the pattern of <em>Arc</em> activation seen in conditioning and control groups, we propose that a key requirement for CS-US convergence onto BLA neurons is the potentiation of US responding by prior exposure to a novel CS. Our results also support the view that contextual fear memories are encoded in the amygdala and that the role of dorsal hippocampus is to process and transmit contextual CS information.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["imaging", "convergence", "amygdalar", "neurons", "pavlovian", "conditioning"], "article_id"=>147107, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Functional_Imaging_of_Stimulus_Convergence_in_Amygdalar_Neurons_during_Pavlovian_Fear_Conditioning/147107", "title"=>"Functional Imaging of Stimulus Convergence in Amygdalar Neurons during Pavlovian Fear Conditioning", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 01:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892490"], "description"=>"<p>(A) catFISH analysis showed that MK801-treated animals had significantly lower levels of CS-induced <i>Arc</i> (cytoplasmic staining, ++<i>P</i> = .01) US-induced <i>Arc</i> (nuclear staining, **<i>P</i> = .001) than saline animals. (B) Treatment with MK801 significantly reduced the number of neurons showing dual <i>Arc</i><sup>+</sup> staining in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments (**<i>P</i> = .001). Data are represented as means±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mk801", "conditioning", "neuronal", "convergence"], "article_id"=>562949, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Treatment_with_MK801_prior_to_conditioning_reduces_neuronal_convergence_in_BLA_/562949", "title"=>"Treatment with MK801 prior to conditioning reduces neuronal convergence in BLA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 00:49:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892409"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A representative image (4×) of the CA1, CA3, and DG regions of hippocampus displaying <i>Arc<sup>+</sup></i> staining following DS fear conditioning. (B) A higher magnification (40×) image of CA1 showing primarily cytoplasmic <i>Arc</i><sup>+</sup> staining. (C) Total number of cells in CA1 showing <i>Arc<sup>+</sup></i> cytoplasmic and nuclear staining across groups (n = 4 rats/group). Robust cytoplasmic staining is seen following novel context CS exposure (as compared to LI group, **<i>P</i><.001), but little nuclear staining is seen following shock. (D) No evidence for CS-US convergence could be found in CA1. (E–F) CA3 showed similar patterns of <i>Arc</i><sup>+</sup> staining to CA1 with DS and IS animals showing significantly higher cytoplasmic (as compared to LI group, **<i>P</i><.01). (G–H) DG showed relatively little <i>Arc</i><sup>+</sup> staining that did not differ between groups. Data are represented as means±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induction", "hippocampus"], "article_id"=>562870, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Arc_induction_in_the_hippocampus_is_sensitive_to_the_CS_but_not_the_US_/562870", "title"=>"<i>Arc</i> induction in the hippocampus is sensitive to the CS, but not the US.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 00:47:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892547"], "description"=>"<p>na, not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "cytoplasmic", "bla", "hippocampus", "groups", "received", "cs"], "article_id"=>563001, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_levels_of_nuclear_and_cytoplasmic_Arc_in_the_BLA_and_Hippocampus_of_various_groups_that_received_CS_and_or_US_exposure_/563001", "title"=>"Relative levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic <i>Arc</i> in the BLA and Hippocampus of various groups that received CS and/or US exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 00:50:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892322"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A representative image (4×) of the BLA displaying <i>Arc<sup>+</sup></i> staining (in red, nuclei are counter-stained green) following DS fear conditioning. (B) A higher magnification image (4×) of the BLA showing cytoplasmic <i>Arc<sup>+</sup></i> staining (blue arrows), nuclear <i>Arc</i><sup>+</sup> staining (orange arrows), and both nuclear and cytoplasmic staining (yellow arrows). For DS animals, cytoplasmic staining corresponds to the context CS event and nuclear staining corresponds to the footshock US event. (C) Total number of cells in the BLA with <i>Arc<sup>+</sup></i> cytoplasmic and nuclear staining across groups (n = 4 rats/group). (Note: for IS animals, cytoplasmic staining corresponds to both CS and US stimuli). The total number of neurons with <i>Arc</i><sup>+</sup> cytoplasmic staining was significantly lower for context-familiar LI animals than for all other groups (*<i>P</i><.01), indicating that <i>Arc</i> induction in BLA is sensitive to a novel CS. Moreover, groups receiving shock four minutes prior to sacrifice (DS and LI) show significant levels of nuclear staining compared to Controls, indicating that <i>Arc</i> is also sensitive to the US (++<i>P</i><.005). Interestingly, DS animals showed a significantly greater number of neurons responding to the US than LI animals (+<i>P</i><.01). (D) Number of neurons showing dual <i>Arc<sup>+</sup></i> staining in both the nucleus and cytoplasm across groups. Only animals in the DS group showed a significant number of neurons responding to both the CS and US (**<i>P</i><.001). Data are represented as means±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induction", "bla", "cs"], "article_id"=>562779, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Arc_induction_in_the_BLA_is_sensitive_to_both_the_CS_and_US_/562779", "title"=>"<i>Arc</i> induction in the BLA is sensitive to both the CS and US.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 00:46:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892572"], "description"=>"**<p><i>P</i><.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurons", "sampled"], "article_id"=>563038, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_and_Percentage_of_Arc_neurons_in_sampled_area_of_BLA_/563038", "title"=>"Number and Percentage of <i>Arc</i>+ neurons in sampled area of BLA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 00:50:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/892249"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A schematic timeline outlining presentation of the context CS and footshock US for Controls, Immediate Shock (IS), Delay Shock (DS), and Latent Inhibition (LI) groups during training. (B) Freezing behavior on training day. Animals introduced to the novel chamber initially explored the context and then became less active as the chamber became familiar. This was especially evident in the LI group. IS animals showed minimal freezing following footshock. In contrast, DS animals, and LI animals to a lesser extent, showed robust freezing following shock (<i>P</i> = .01). Grey-filled symbols represent the period when postshock freezing was assessed in DS, IS and LI animals. (C) Freezing behavior on retention test next day. Only DS animals showed significant freezing 24 hours after conditioning (<i>P</i> = .01). (D) Animals used for catFISH analysis showed similar trends of activity and freezing during training as behaviorally tested animals. These animals were sacrificed immediately after 30 minutes in the chamber. Data are represented as percent means±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience", "neuroscience/psychology"], "article_id"=>562709, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sabiha K. Barot", "Ain Chung", "Jeansok J. Kim", "Ilene L. Bernstein"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006156.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Single_Trial_Fear_Conditioning_/562709", "title"=>"Single Trial Fear Conditioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-07 00:45:09"}

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