The Roles and Interactions of Symbiont, Host and Environment in Defining Coral Fitness
Publication Date
July 24, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jos C. Mieog, Jeanine L. Olsen, Ray Berkelmans, Silvia A. Bleuler Martinez, et al
Volume
4
Issue
7
Pages
e6364
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0006364
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19629182
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2710517
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19629182
Web of Science
000268318900007
Scopus
67749147580
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/roles-interactions-symbiont-host-environment-defining-coral-fitness
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The roles and interactions of symbiont, host and environment in defining coral fitness", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jos C.", "last_name"=>"Mieog", "scopus_author_id"=>"22985672400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeanine L.", "last_name"=>"Olsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403255589"}, {"first_name"=>"Ray", "last_name"=>"Berkelmans", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603545385"}, {"first_name"=>"Silvia A.", "last_name"=>"Bleuler-Martinez", "scopus_author_id"=>"29067485300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bette L.", "last_name"=>"Willis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101749421"}, {"first_name"=>"Madeleine J.H.", "last_name"=>"van Oppen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003490287"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67749147580", "pui"=>"354999898", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006364", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"19629182", "sgr"=>"67749147580"}, "id"=>"bd65cae4-fc29-3b6a-bdb2-807940fd0a87", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Reef-building corals live in symbiosis with a diverse range of dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) that differentially influence the fitness of the coral holobiont. The comparative role of symbiont type in holobiont fitness in relation to host genotype or the environment, however, is largely unknown. We addressed this knowledge gap by manipulating host-symbiont combinations and comparing growth, survival and thermal tolerance among the resultant holobionts in different environments.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Offspring of the coral, Acropora millepora, from two thermally contrasting locations, were experimentally infected with one of six Symbiodinium types, which spanned three phylogenetic clades (A, C and D), and then outplanted to the two parental field locations (central and southern inshore Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Growth and survival of juvenile corals were monitored for 31-35 weeks, after which their thermo-tolerance was experimentally assessed. Our results showed that: (1) Symbiodinium type was the most important predictor of holobiont fitness, as measured by growth, survival, and thermo-tolerance; (2) growth and survival, but not heat-tolerance, were also affected by local environmental conditions; and (3) host population had little to no effect on holobiont fitness. Furthermore, coral-algal associations were established with symbiont types belonging to clades A, C and D, but three out of four symbiont types belonging to clade C failed to establish a symbiosis. Associations with clade A had the lowest fitness and were unstable in the field. Lastly, Symbiodinium types C1 and D were found to be relatively thermo-tolerant, with type D conferring the highest tolerance in A. millepora.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight the complex interactions that occur between the coral host, the algal symbiont, and the environment to shape the fitness of the coral holobiont. An improved understanding of the factors affecting coral holobiont fitness will assist in predicting the responses of corals to global climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/roles-interactions-symbiont-host-environment-defining-coral-fitness", "reader_count"=>222, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>48, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>66, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>38, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Researcher"=>48, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>66, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>38, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>24, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>36, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>162, "Philosophy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>162}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>36}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>8, "Malaysia"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Costa Rica"=>1, "New Zealand"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "Denmark"=>1, "Mexico"=>3, "Bermuda"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/890771"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of three different temperature regimes on the excitation pressure over photosystem II of three groups of juvenile coral outplanted to the Keppel Islands, and one outplanted to Magnetic Island. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#s4\" target=\"_blank\">materials and methods</a> for nomenclature. $ = target temperature is reached, + = significant difference between KKA and MKC1/KKC1/KKD corals (p<0.001), # = significant difference between all three symbiont types (p<0.05). KKA corals responded much stronger to the heat-stress than the other three juvenile coral groups, as indicated by a sharp increase in Q values for KKA corals in the highest temperature treatment relatively early in the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/environmental microbiology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/marine and freshwater ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences/climate change", "marine and aquatic sciences/ecology"], "article_id"=>561214, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heat_stress_experiment_2_PAM_fluorometry_/561214", "title"=>"Heat-stress experiment 2: PAM-fluorometry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:20:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/890485"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of four different temperature regimes on the excitation pressure over photosystem II of four groups of juvenile coral outplanted to Magnetic Island. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#s4\" target=\"_blank\">materials and methods</a> for nomenclature. L:D = light-dark regime, $ = target temperature is reached, # = significant difference between C1 corals and D corals. C1 corals responded stronger to the highest temperature treatment than D corals, as indicated by a stronger increase in Q for C1 corals towards the end of the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/environmental microbiology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/marine and freshwater ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences/climate change", "marine and aquatic sciences/ecology"], "article_id"=>560934, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heat_stress_experiment_1_PAM_fluorometry_/560934", "title"=>"Heat-stress experiment 1: PAM-fluorometry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:15:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/891094"], "description"=>"1<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#pone.0006364-Berkelmans1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>.</p>2<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#pone.0006364-Berkelmans2\" target=\"_blank\">[65]</a>.</p>3<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#pone.0006364-Jones1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>4<p>This study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["keppel", "locations"], "article_id"=>561550, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_Magnetic_Island_and_the_Keppel_Island_field_locations_and_their_A_millepora_populations_/561550", "title"=>"Comparison of Magnetic Island and the Keppel Island field locations and their <i>A. millepora</i> populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:25:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441054", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441096", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441128", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441168", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441217", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441241", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441271", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441300"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Reef-building corals live in symbiosis with a diverse range of dinoflagellate algae (genus <em>Symbiodinium</em>) that differentially influence the fitness of the coral holobiont. The comparative role of symbiont type in holobiont fitness in relation to host genotype or the environment, however, is largely unknown. We addressed this knowledge gap by manipulating host-symbiont combinations and comparing growth, survival and thermal tolerance among the resultant holobionts in different environments.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Offspring of the coral, <em>Acropora millepora</em>, from two thermally contrasting locations, were experimentally infected with one of six <em>Symbiodinium</em> types, which spanned three phylogenetic clades (A, C and D), and then outplanted to the two parental field locations (central and southern inshore Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Growth and survival of juvenile corals were monitored for 31–35 weeks, after which their thermo-tolerance was experimentally assessed. Our results showed that: (1) <em>Symbiodinium</em> type was the most important predictor of holobiont fitness, as measured by growth, survival, and thermo-tolerance; (2) growth and survival, but not heat-tolerance, were also affected by local environmental conditions; and (3) host population had little to no effect on holobiont fitness. Furthermore, coral-algal associations were established with symbiont types belonging to clades A, C and D, but three out of four symbiont types belonging to clade C failed to establish a symbiosis. Associations with clade A had the lowest fitness and were unstable in the field. Lastly, <em>Symbiodinium</em> types C1 and D were found to be relatively thermo-tolerant, with type D conferring the highest tolerance in <em>A. millepora</em>.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>These results highlight the complex interactions that occur between the coral host, the algal symbiont, and the environment to shape the fitness of the coral holobiont. An improved understanding of the factors affecting coral holobiont fitness will assist in predicting the responses of corals to global climate change.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roles", "interactions", "defining", "coral"], "article_id"=>146940, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>43, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Roles_and_Interactions_of_Symbiont_Host_and_Environment_in_Defining_Coral_Fitness/146940", "title"=>"The Roles and Interactions of Symbiont, Host and Environment in Defining Coral Fitness", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 01:55:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/890274"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#s4\" target=\"_blank\">materials and methods</a> for nomenclature of the experimental groups. +indicates significant difference between juvenile corals harboring <i>Symbiodinium</i> C1 and those harboring D (p<0.05), and # indicates significant difference between KKA and KKC1/KKD corals (growth, p<0.05) or between KKD and KKA/KKC1 corals (survival, p<0.001). C1 corals grew and survived better at Magnetic Island than the D corals. At the Keppel Islands, KKC1 and KKD corals grew at similar rates, but KKD corals had a better survival rate. KKA corals grew slowest at the Keppel Islands and had a low survival rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coral", "juveniles", "keppel", "islands"], "article_id"=>560722, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_and_survival_of_coral_juveniles_at_Magnetic_Island_a_c_and_the_Keppel_Islands_b_d_/560722", "title"=>"Growth and survival of coral juveniles at Magnetic Island (a+c) and the Keppel Islands (b+d).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:12:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/891057"], "description"=>"<p>Results of ANOVA analyses. GLM = General Linear Model, RM = Repeated Measures, F = Factorial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anova", "linear"], "article_id"=>561509, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_ANOVA_analyses_GLM_8202_8202_General_Linear_Model_RM_8202_8202_Repeated_Measures_F_8202_8202_Factorial_/561509", "title"=>"Results of ANOVA analyses. GLM = General Linear Model, RM = Repeated Measures, F = Factorial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:25:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/890973"], "description"=>"<p>End effect of three different temperature regimes on the relative algal symbiont densities (bars) and coral condition (pies) of three groups of juvenile coral outplanted to Magnetic Island, and one outplanted to Magnetic Island. Blue = healthy, purple = pale, white = bleached. # = significantly different from lower temperatures within the same group (p<0.05), $ = significantly different from KKC1/MKC1 and KKD corals at the same temperature (p<0.05), + = significantly different from KKA and KKD corals at same temperature (p<0.05). KKA corals showed the strongest bleaching response as indicated by the strongest reduction in relative algal symbiont densities and bleached appearances, KKC1/MKC1 corals showed an intermediate bleaching response as indicated by intermediate reductions in relative algal densities, and KKD corals showed no signs of a bleaching response.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algal", "symbiont", "densities", "coral"], "article_id"=>561426, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heat_stress_experiment_2_relative_algal_symbiont_densities_and_coral_condition_/561426", "title"=>"Heat-stress experiment 2: relative algal symbiont densities and coral condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:23:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/890668"], "description"=>"<p>End effect of four different temperature regimes on the relative algal symbiont densities (bars) and coral condition (pies) of four groups of juvenile coral outplanted to Magnetic Island. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364#s4\" target=\"_blank\">materials and methods</a> for nomenclature. Blue = healthy, purple = pale, white = bleached. # = significantly different from lower temperatures within a group (p<0.05). All four experimental groups exhibited a bleaching response at the highest temperature treatment, as indicated by significant reductions in relative algal symbiont densities, and the visual assessment indicated a stronger response (more bleached colonies) for C1 corals than for D corals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["algal", "symbiont", "densities", "coral"], "article_id"=>561119, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Jos C. Mieog", "Jeanine L. Olsen", "Ray Berkelmans", "Silvia A. Bleuler-Martinez", "Bette L. Willis", "Madeleine J. H. van Oppen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006364.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heat_stress_experiment_1_relative_algal_symbiont_densities_and_coral_condition_/561119", "title"=>"Heat-stress experiment 1: relative algal symbiont densities and coral condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-24 00:18:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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