Autosomal Resequence Data Reveal Late Stone Age Signals of Population Expansion in Sub-Saharan African Foraging and Farming Populations
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{"title"=>"Autosomal resequence data reveal late stone age signals of population expansion in Sub-Saharan African foraging and farming populations", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Murray P.", "last_name"=>"Cox", "scopus_author_id"=>"8699959500"}, {"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Morales", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102270868"}, {"first_name"=>"August E.", "last_name"=>"Woerner", "scopus_author_id"=>"18635628700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jesse", "last_name"=>"Sozanski", "scopus_author_id"=>"34977662700"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffrey D.", "last_name"=>"Wall", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201352010"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael F.", "last_name"=>"Hammer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103177762"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19641603", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006366", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-68249109483", "pui"=>"355050168", "sgr"=>"68249109483"}, "id"=>"2e16611a-b5e1-3d9a-83cd-e9129e2538ce", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: A major unanswered question in the evolution of Homo sapiens is when anatomically modern human populations began to expand: was demographic growth associated with the invention of particular technologies or behavioral innovations by hunter-gatherers in the Late Pleistocene, or with the acquisition of farming in the Neolithic?\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigate the timing of human population expansion by performing a multilocus analysis of > or = 20 unlinked autosomal noncoding regions, each consisting of approximately 6 kilobases, resequenced in approximately 184 individuals from 7 human populations. We test the hypothesis that the autosomal polymorphism data fit a simple two-phase growth model, and when the hypothesis is not rejected, we fit parameters of this model to our data using approximate Bayesian computation.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data from the three surveyed non-African populations (French Basque, Chinese Han, and Melanesians) are inconsistent with the simple growth model, presumably because they reflect more complex demographic histories. In contrast, data from all four sub-Saharan African populations fit the two-phase growth model, and a range of onset times and growth rates is inferred for each population. Interestingly, both hunter-gatherers (San and Biaka) and food-producers (Mandenka and Yorubans) best fit models with population growth beginning in the Late Pleistocene. Moreover, our hunter-gatherer populations show a tendency towards slightly older and stronger growth (approximately 41 thousand years ago, approximately 13-fold) than our food-producing populations (approximately 31 thousand years ago, approximately 7-fold). These dates are concurrent with the appearance of the Late Stone Age in Africa, supporting the hypothesis that population growth played a significant role in the evolution of Late Pleistocene human cultures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/autosomal-resequence-data-reveal-late-stone-age-signals-population-expansion-subsaharan-african-fora", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Philosophy"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/889645"], "description"=>"<p><i>τ</i>, time of onset of growth (in generations and thousands of years, respectively).</p><p><i>α</i>, rate of growth (per generation).</p><p><i>N<sub>A</sub></i>, ancestral effective population size.</p><p><i>N<sub>0</sub></i>, modern effective population size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parameters", "1-dimensional", "african"], "article_id"=>560098, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Murray P. Cox", "David A. Morales", "August E. Woerner", "Jesse Sozanski", "Jeffrey D. Wall", "Michael F. Hammer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_parameters_means_and_1_dimensional_95_confidence_intervals_for_4_African_population_based_on_Rozas_R_2_/560098", "title"=>"Growth parameters (means and 1-dimensional 95% confidence intervals) for 4 African population based on Rozas' <i>R<sub>2</sub></i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-07-29 00:01:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/889546"], "description"=>"<p>The maximum likelihood estimate falls within the black-filled region, with black, dark gray, and light gray shading indicating 10%, 50%, and 95% contour lines, respectively. Unshaded regions were rejected at the 5% level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["onset", "generations", "rates", "inferred", "autosomal", "two-phase", "abc", "loci", "individually", "mandenka"], "article_id"=>559990, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Murray P. Cox", "David A. Morales", "August E. Woerner", "Jesse Sozanski", "Jeffrey D. Wall", "Michael F. Hammer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Times_of_onset_of_growth_in_generations_y_axis_and_growth_rates_per_generation_x_axis_inferred_from_autosomal_data_under_the_two_phase_growth_model_using_ABC_on_Rozas_R_2_and_S_of_all_loci_individually_for_A_Biaka_B_San_C_Mandenka_and_D_Yorubans_/559990", "title"=>"Times of onset of growth in generations (<i>y</i>-axis) and growth rates per generation (<i>x</i>-axis) inferred from autosomal data under the two-phase growth model using ABC on Rozas' <i>R<sub>2</sub></i> and <i>S</i> of all loci individually for (A) Biaka, (B) San, (C) Mandenka and (D) Yorubans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-29 02:46:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440696", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440758", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440797", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440831", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440874", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440918", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440950", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/440980", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441008", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/441045"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A major unanswered question in the evolution of <em>Homo sapiens</em> is when anatomically modern human populations began to expand: was demographic growth associated with the invention of particular technologies or behavioral innovations by hunter-gatherers in the Late Pleistocene, or with the acquisition of farming in the Neolithic?</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We investigate the timing of human population expansion by performing a multilocus analysis of≥20 unlinked autosomal noncoding regions, each consisting of ∼6 kilobases, resequenced in ∼184 individuals from 7 human populations. We test the hypothesis that the autosomal polymorphism data fit a simple two-phase growth model, and when the hypothesis is not rejected, we fit parameters of this model to our data using approximate Bayesian computation.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The data from the three surveyed non-African populations (French Basque, Chinese Han, and Melanesians) are inconsistent with the simple growth model, presumably because they reflect more complex demographic histories. In contrast, data from all four sub-Saharan African populations fit the two-phase growth model, and a range of onset times and growth rates is inferred for each population. Interestingly, both hunter-gatherers (San and Biaka) and food-producers (Mandenka and Yorubans) best fit models with population growth beginning in the Late Pleistocene. Moreover, our hunter-gatherer populations show a tendency towards slightly older and stronger growth (∼41 thousand years ago, ∼13-fold) than our food-producing populations (∼31 thousand years ago, ∼7-fold). These dates are concurrent with the appearance of the Late Stone Age in Africa, supporting the hypothesis that population growth played a significant role in the evolution of Late Pleistocene human cultures.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["autosomal", "resequence", "signals", "sub-saharan", "african", "foraging", "farming", "populations"], "article_id"=>146881, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Murray P. Cox", "David A. Morales", "August E. Woerner", "Jesse Sozanski", "Jeffrey D. Wall", "Michael F. Hammer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Autosomal_Resequence_Data_Reveal_Late_Stone_Age_Signals_of_Population_Expansion_in_Sub_Saharan_African_Foraging_and_Farming_Populations/146881", "title"=>"Autosomal Resequence Data Reveal Late Stone Age Signals of Population Expansion in Sub-Saharan African Foraging and Farming Populations", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-07-29 01:54:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/889384"], "description"=>"<p>White indicates both mean and variance rejected at the 5% level; grey indicates either mean or variance rejected; black indicates neither mean nor variance rejected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["onset", "generations", "rates", "inferred", "autosomal", "two-phase", "variance", "loci", "mandenka"], "article_id"=>559826, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Murray P. Cox", "David A. Morales", "August E. Woerner", "Jesse Sozanski", "Jeffrey D. Wall", "Michael F. Hammer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Times_of_onset_of_growth_in_generations_y_axis_and_growth_rates_per_generation_x_axis_inferred_from_autosomal_data_under_the_two_phase_growth_model_using_the_mean_and_variance_of_Rozas_R_2_across_loci_for_A_Biaka_B_San_C_Mandenka_and_D_Yorubans_/559826", "title"=>"Times of onset of growth in generations (<i>y</i>-axis) and growth rates per generation (<i>x</i>-axis) inferred from autosomal data under the two-phase growth model using the mean and variance of Rozas' <i>R<sub>2</sub></i> across loci for (A) Biaka, (B) San, (C) Mandenka and (D) Yorubans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-07-29 02:43:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/889683"], "description"=>"<p><i>N</i>, number of chromosomes.</p><p><i>l</i>, length of sequence (kb).</p><p><i>S</i>, number of segregating sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["african"], "article_id"=>560141, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Murray P. Cox", "David A. Morales", "August E. Woerner", "Jesse Sozanski", "Jeffrey D. Wall", "Michael F. Hammer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006366.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_summary_statistics_for_4_African_populations_/560141", "title"=>"Mean summary statistics for 4 African populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-07-29 00:02:21"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"15", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"32", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
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Relative Metric

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