Acoustic Oddball during NREM Sleep: A Combined EEG/fMRI Study
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{"title"=>"Acoustic oddball during NREM sleep: A combined EEG/fMRI study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Czisch", "scopus_author_id"=>"56239027800"}, {"first_name"=>"Renate", "last_name"=>"Wehrle", "scopus_author_id"=>"8501940300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Stiegler", "scopus_author_id"=>"35109948000"}, {"first_name"=>"Henning", "last_name"=>"Peters", "scopus_author_id"=>"35109617600"}, {"first_name"=>"Katia", "last_name"=>"Andrade", "scopus_author_id"=>"24167743400"}, {"first_name"=>"Florian", "last_name"=>"Holsboer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56253704800"}, {"first_name"=>"Philipp G.", "last_name"=>"Sämann", "scopus_author_id"=>"16679659000"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-69849103346", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006749", "sgr"=>"69849103346", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"19707599", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"355207853"}, "id"=>"328c7557-315b-3ebf-ad74-bbefcf68fc5c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: A condition vital for the consolidation and maintenance of sleep is generally reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Despite this, the sleeper maintains a level of stimulus processing that allows to respond to potentially dangerous environmental signals. The mechanisms that subserve these contradictory functions are only incompletely understood.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using combined EEG/fMRI we investigated the neural substrate of sleep protection by applying an acoustic oddball paradigm during light NREM sleep. Further, we studied the role of evoked K-complexes (KCs), an electroencephalographic hallmark of NREM sleep with a still unknown role for sleep protection. Our main results were: (1) Other than in wakefulness, rare tones did not induce a blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase in the auditory pathway but a strong negative BOLD response in motor areas and the amygdala. (2) Stratification of rare tones by the presence of evoked KCs detected activation of the auditory cortex, hippocampus, superior and middle frontal gyri and posterior cingulate only for rare tones followed by a KC. (3) The typical high frontocentral EEG deflections of KCs were not paralleled by a BOLD equivalent.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed that rare tones lead to transient disengagement of motor and amygdala responses during light NREM sleep. We interpret this as a sleep protective mechanism to delimit motor responses and to reduce the sensitivity of the amygdala towards further incoming stimuli. Evoked KCs are suggested to originate from a brain state with relatively increased stimulus processing, revealing an activity pattern resembling novelty processing as previously reported during wakefulness. The KC itself is not reflected by increased metabolic demand in BOLD based imaging, arguing that evoked KCs result from increased neural synchronicity without altered metabolic demand.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/acoustic-oddball-during-nrem-sleep-combined-eegfmri-study", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>6, "Unspecified"=>6, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Neuroscience"=>12, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>20, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>12}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>20}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/886736"], "description"=>"<p>Clusters resulting from second level random effects analysis (t test, <i>p<sub>FDR</sub></i><0.05). Regions showing significant (de-)activation to the odd tones as compared to even tones are listed. Sorting is after Z-values of the cluster peak voxel. Brodmann areas are identified for clusters covering>3% of the respective area. Coordinates (x, y and z) are given in MNI space.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contrasting", "tones"], "article_id"=>557189, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Michael Czisch", "Renate Wehrle", "Andrea Stiegler", "Henning Peters", "Katia Andrade", "Florian Holsboer", "Philipp G. Sämann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_contrasting_odd_tones_against_even_tones_in_sleep_stage_2_/557189", "title"=>"Activation contrasting odd tones against even tones in sleep stage 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-25 01:59:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/439419", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/439442"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A condition vital for the consolidation and maintenance of sleep is generally reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Despite this, the sleeper maintains a level of stimulus processing that allows to respond to potentially dangerous environmental signals. The mechanisms that subserve these contradictory functions are only incompletely understood.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Using combined EEG/fMRI we investigated the neural substrate of sleep protection by applying an acoustic oddball paradigm during light NREM sleep. Further, we studied the role of evoked K-complexes (KCs), an electroencephalographic hallmark of NREM sleep with a still unknown role for sleep protection. Our main results were: (1) Other than in wakefulness, rare tones did not induce a blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase in the auditory pathway but a strong negative BOLD response in motor areas and the amygdala. (2) Stratification of rare tones by the presence of evoked KCs detected activation of the auditory cortex, hippocampus, superior and middle frontal gyri and posterior cingulate only for rare tones followed by a KC. (3) The typical high frontocentral EEG deflections of KCs were not paralleled by a BOLD equivalent.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>We observed that rare tones lead to transient disengagement of motor and amygdala responses during light NREM sleep. We interpret this as a sleep protective mechanism to delimit motor responses and to reduce the sensitivity of the amygdala towards further incoming stimuli. Evoked KCs are suggested to originate from a brain state with relatively increased stimulus processing, revealing an activity pattern resembling novelty processing as previously reported during wakefulness. The KC itself is not reflected by increased metabolic demand in BOLD based imaging, arguing that evoked KCs result from increased neural synchronicity without altered metabolic demand.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["acoustic", "oddball", "nrem"], "article_id"=>146629, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Michael Czisch", "Renate Wehrle", "Andrea Stiegler", "Henning Peters", "Katia Andrade", "Florian Holsboer", "Philipp G. Sämann"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Acoustic_Oddball_during_NREM_Sleep_A_Combined_EEG_fMRI_Study/146629", "title"=>"Acoustic Oddball during NREM Sleep: A Combined EEG/fMRI Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-08-25 01:50:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/886773"], "description"=>"<p>Clusters resulting from second level random effects analysis (t test, <i>p<sub>uncorr</sub></i><0.001). Regions showing significant (de-)activation to the odd tones evoking a KC response as compared to odd tones without KCs are listed. Sorting is after Z-values of the cluster peak voxel. Brodmann areas are identified for clusters covering>3% of the respective area. Coordinates (x, y and z) are given in MNI space.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contrasting", "tones", "evoked", "kcs"], "article_id"=>557224, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Michael Czisch", "Renate Wehrle", "Andrea Stiegler", "Henning Peters", "Katia Andrade", "Florian Holsboer", "Philipp G. Sämann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_contrasting_odd_tones_with_evoked_KCs_against_odd_tones_without_evoked_KCs_in_sleep_stage_2_/557224", "title"=>"Activation contrasting odd tones with evoked KCs against odd tones without evoked KCs in sleep stage 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-25 02:00:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/886590"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Comparison of activation for rare tones followed by a KC against rare tones not evoking a KC response. Axial slices are indicated with MNI z-coordinates. FMRI data are thresholded at p<sub>uncorr</sub><0.001, cluster extent>10 voxels. (B) Evoked potentials for the Fz, Cz and Pz derivation. Green: frequent tones; red: rare<sub>w/oKC</sub> tones; black: rare<sub>KC</sub> tones. Surface mapping of EEG amplitudes for selected components is inserted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["activation", "patterns", "evoked"], "article_id"=>557050, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Michael Czisch", "Renate Wehrle", "Andrea Stiegler", "Henning Peters", "Katia Andrade", "Florian Holsboer", "Philipp G. Sämann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_activation_patterns_dependent_on_evoked_K_complexes_/557050", "title"=>"Differences in activation patterns dependent on evoked K-complexes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-08-25 01:57:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/886436"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison between wakefulness (A) and sleep stage 2 (B). Orthogonal views at MNI coordinates x = 7, y = −5, z = 7. Inserts show ERPs to frequent (green) and rare tones (red) at electrode position Cz. FMRI data are thresholded at p<sub>FDR</sub><0.05, cluster extent>10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "tones", "compared"], "article_id"=>556890, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Michael Czisch", "Renate Wehrle", "Andrea Stiegler", "Henning Peters", "Katia Andrade", "Florian Holsboer", "Philipp G. Sämann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neuronal_responses_to_rare_tones_as_compared_to_frequent_tones_/556890", "title"=>"Neuronal responses to rare tones as compared to frequent tones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-08-25 01:54:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/886701"], "description"=>"<p>Clusters resulting from second level random effects analysis (t test, p<i><sub>FDR</sub></i><0.05). Regions showing significant activation to the odd tones as compared to even tones are listed. Sorting is after Z-values of the cluster peak voxel. Brodmann areas are identified for clusters covering>3% of the respective area. Coordinates (x, y and z) are given in MNI space. MDN: Medial dorsal nucleus, VPMN: ventral posterior medial nucleus, LPN: Lateral posterior nucleus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contrasting", "tones"], "article_id"=>557157, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Michael Czisch", "Renate Wehrle", "Andrea Stiegler", "Henning Peters", "Katia Andrade", "Florian Holsboer", "Philipp G. Sämann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006749.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_contrasting_odd_tones_against_even_tones_during_wakefulness_/557157", "title"=>"Activation contrasting odd tones against even tones during wakefulness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-08-25 01:59:17"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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