How Humans Differ from Other Animals in Their Levels of Morphological Variation
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{"title"=>"How humans differ from other animals in their levels of morphological variation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ann E.", "last_name"=>"McKellar", "scopus_author_id"=>"25936587000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew P.", "last_name"=>"Hendry", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101656570"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19721716", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006876", "sgr"=>"70149097794", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70149097794", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"355242672"}, "id"=>"4248ef80-4c85-3db7-994b-7df8680999eb", "abstract"=>"Animal species come in many shapes and sizes, as do the individuals and populations that make up each species. To us, humans might seem to show particularly high levels of morphological variation, but perhaps this perception is simply based on enhanced recognition of individual conspecifics relative to individual heterospecifics. We here more objectively ask how humans compare to other animals in terms of body size variation. We quantitatively compare levels of variation in body length (height) and mass within and among 99 human populations and 848 animal populations (210 species). We find that humans show low levels of within-population body height variation in comparison to body length variation in other animals. Humans do not, however, show distinctive levels of within-population body mass variation, nor of among-population body height or mass variation. These results are consistent with the idea that natural and sexual selection have reduced human height variation within populations, while maintaining it among populations. We therefore hypothesize that humans have evolved on a rugged adaptive landscape with strong selection for body height optima that differ among locations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/humans-differ-other-animals-levels-morphological-variation", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>19}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>19}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885585"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are species means for animals (black) and population means for humans (grey) for males (A) and females (B). Arrows indicate the locations of CVs for mean human height.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "within-population"], "article_id"=>556046, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ann E. McKellar", "Andrew P. Hendry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_coefficients_of_variation_CV_for_within_population_body_length_or_height_/556046", "title"=>"Distributions of coefficients of variation (CV) for within-population body length or height.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-01 01:40:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885456"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are regression lines (solid), x = y lines (dashed), and data for males (A, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.81, P<0.001) and females (B, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.58, P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cvs", "within-population"], "article_id"=>555921, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ann E. McKellar", "Andrew P. Hendry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_mean_CVs_for_within_population_mass_divided_by_three_see_Materials_and_Methods_versus_length_/555921", "title"=>"Species-mean CVs for within-population mass (divided by three; see Materials and Methods) versus length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-01 01:38:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438739", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438752", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438785", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438796", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438805"], "description"=>"<div><p>Animal species come in many shapes and sizes, as do the individuals and populations that make up each species. To us, humans might seem to show particularly high levels of morphological variation, but perhaps this perception is simply based on enhanced recognition of individual conspecifics relative to individual heterospecifics. We here more objectively ask how humans compare to other animals in terms of body size variation. We quantitatively compare levels of variation in body length (height) and mass within and among 99 human populations and 848 animal populations (210 species). We find that humans show low levels of within-population body height variation in comparison to body length variation in other animals. Humans do not, however, show distinctive levels of within-population body mass variation, nor of among-population body height or mass variation. These results are consistent with the idea that natural and sexual selection have reduced human height variation within populations, while maintaining it among populations. We therefore hypothesize that humans have evolved on a rugged adaptive landscape with strong selection for body height optima that differ among locations.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humans", "animals", "levels", "morphological"], "article_id"=>146530, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ann E. McKellar", "Andrew P. Hendry"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>27, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/How_Humans_Differ_from_Other_Animals_in_Their_Levels_of_Morphological_Variation/146530", "title"=>"How Humans Differ from Other Animals in Their Levels of Morphological Variation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-09-01 01:48:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885673"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are regression lines (solid), x = y lines (dashed), and data for males (A, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.29, P = 0.001) and females (B, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.23, P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cvs", "among-population", "within-population"], "article_id"=>556135, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ann E. McKellar", "Andrew P. Hendry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006876.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_mean_CVs_for_among_population_versus_within_population_body_length_or_height_/556135", "title"=>"Species-mean CVs for among-population versus within-population body length or height.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-01 01:42:15"}

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