Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador
Publication Date
September 02, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Antonio Salas, José Lovo Gómez, Vanesa Álvarez Iglesias, María Cerezo, et al
Volume
4
Issue
9
Pages
e6882
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0006882
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19724647
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2731219
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19724647
Web of Science
000269522800007
Scopus
70149097329
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/mitochondrial-echoes-first-settlement-genetic-continuity-el-salvador
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Mitochondrial echoes of first settlement and genetic continuity in El Salvador", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Salas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102443063"}, {"first_name"=>"José", "last_name"=>"Lovo-Gómez", "scopus_author_id"=>"18434404200"}, {"first_name"=>"Vanesa", "last_name"=>"Álvarez-Iglesias", "scopus_author_id"=>"17343352900"}, {"first_name"=>"María", "last_name"=>"Cerezo", "scopus_author_id"=>"23481403300"}, {"first_name"=>"María Victoria", "last_name"=>"Lareu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004398060"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent", "last_name"=>"Macaulay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006609633"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin B.", "last_name"=>"Richards", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402054812"}, {"first_name"=>"Ángel", "last_name"=>"Carracedo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006062179"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"19724647", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006882", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70149097329", "pui"=>"355242733", "sgr"=>"70149097329"}, "id"=>"93f6fe91-41ee-3ee1-8abf-75fcb9ae9b7d", "abstract"=>"<sec> <title>Background</title> <p>From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title> <p>We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas.</p> </sec><sec> <title>Conclusions/Significance</title> <p>As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a very limited contribution from European and African women (∼5%). This implies that the Atlantic slave trade had a very small demographic impact in El Salvador in contrast to its transformation of the gene pool in neighbouring populations from the Caribbean facade.</p> </sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mitochondrial-echoes-first-settlement-genetic-continuity-el-salvador", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884715"], "description"=>"<p><i>n</i> = sample size; <i>H</i> = number of different haplotypes; <i>D</i> = haplotype diversity; <i>π</i> = nucleotide diversity; <i>M</i> = average number of nucleotide differences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["american", "mtdna", "considering"], "article_id"=>555168, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Antonio Salas", "José Lovo-Gómez", "Vanesa Álvarez-Iglesias", "María Cerezo", "María Victoria Lareu", "Vincent Macaulay", "Martin B. Richards", "Ángel Carracedo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Native_American_population_mtDNA_database_considering_the_sequence_range_16090_8211_16365_/555168", "title"=>"Native American population mtDNA database considering the sequence range 16090–16365.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:44:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884521"], "description"=>"<p>Codes for populations are as follow: North America: 1 = Chukchy, 2 = Eskimos <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Starikovskaya1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>; 3 = Inuit (collected from the HvrBase database <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Burckhardt1\" target=\"_blank\">[84]</a>; 4 = Aleuts <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Rubicz1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>; 5 = Athapaskan <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Shields1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>; 6 = Haida <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ward1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>; 7 = Apache <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Budowle1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>, 8 = Bella Coola <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ward1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>; 9 = Navajo <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Budowle1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>; 10 = Sioux, 11 = Chippewa <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>, 12 = Nuu-Chah-Nult <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ward2\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>; 13 = Cheyenne <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>; 14 = Muskogean populations <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Bolnick1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>; 15 = Cheyenne-Arapaho <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Malhi1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>; 16 = Yakima <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Shields1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>; 17 = Stillwell Cherokee <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Malhi1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>; Meso-America: 18 = Pima <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Kittles1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>; 19 = Mexico <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Green1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>; 20 = Quiche <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Boles1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>; 21 = Cuba <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Boles1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>; 22 = El Salvador (present study); 23 = Huetar <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Santos1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a>; 24 = Emberá <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Kolman2\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>; 25 = Kuna <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Batista1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>; 26 = Ngöbé <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Kolman1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>; 27 = Wounan <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Kolman1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>; South America: 28 = Guahibo <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Vona1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>; 29 = Yanomamo from Venezuela <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Williams1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a>; 30 = Gaviao <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ward3\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>; 31 = Yanomamo from Venezuela and Brazil <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Merriwether2\" target=\"_blank\">[86]</a>; 32 = Colombia <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Torres1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>; 33 = Ecuador (general population), 34 = Cayapa <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Rickards1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>; 35 = Xavante <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ward3\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>; 36 = North Brazil <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Santos2\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>; 37 = Brazil <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-AlvesSilva1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>; 38 = Curiau <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-RibeiroDosSantos1\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>; 39 = Zoró <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ward3\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>; 40 = Ignaciano, 41 = Yuracare <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Bert1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>; 42 = Ayoreo <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Dornelles1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>; 43 = Araucarians <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Horai1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>; 44 = Pehuenche, 45 = Mapuche from Chile <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Moraga1\" target=\"_blank\">[45]</a>; 46 = Coyas <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-lvarezIglesias2\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>; 47 = Tacuarembó <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Bonilla1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a>; 48 = Uruguay <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Pagano1\" target=\"_blank\">[50]</a>; 49 = Mapuches from Argentina <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Ginther1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>; 50 = Yaghan <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Moraga2\" target=\"_blank\">[59]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns"], "article_id"=>554973, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Antonio Salas", "José Lovo-Gómez", "Vanesa Álvarez-Iglesias", "María Cerezo", "María Victoria Lareu", "Vincent Macaulay", "Martin B. Richards", "Ángel Carracedo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>138, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Haplogroup_patterns_in_America_/554973", "title"=>"Haplogroup patterns in America.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:42:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884750"], "description"=>"<p>HG = haplogroup.</p><p>n.d. = non determined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["haplotypes", "el"], "article_id"=>555204, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Antonio Salas", "José Lovo-Gómez", "Vanesa Álvarez-Iglesias", "María Cerezo", "María Victoria Lareu", "Vincent Macaulay", "Martin B. Richards", "Ángel Carracedo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MtDNA_haplotypes_in_El_Salvador_/555204", "title"=>"MtDNA haplotypes in El Salvador.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884627"], "description"=>"<p>Only the variation contained in the HVS-I segment (range 16090–16365) was used. Positions are referred to the rCRS minus 16000; a transversion is specifically indicated as a suffix. The areas of the circles are proportional to the number of individuals bearing the corresponding haplotype in the El Salvador sample. The histograms indicate the frequency of the El Salvadorian mtDNA founder clusters in other continental regions (North, Meso, and South America). To compute the TMRCA and founder ages, we resolved the network to a tree (shown by the bold connections between haplotypes), using the positional mutation rates reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882#pone.0006882-Soares1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a>. Resolved parallel mutations are shown underlined. The ancestral haplotype is indicated by a hash.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["haplogroup", "a2", "mtdna", "sequences", "el"], "article_id"=>555074, "categories"=>["Genetics"], "users"=>["Antonio Salas", "José Lovo-Gómez", "Vanesa Álvarez-Iglesias", "María Cerezo", "María Victoria Lareu", "Vincent Macaulay", "Martin B. Richards", "Ángel Carracedo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006882.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_network_of_haplogroup_A2_mtDNA_sequences_from_El_Salvador_/555074", "title"=>"Phylogenetic network of haplogroup A2 mtDNA sequences from El Salvador.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:43:28"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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