Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile
Publication Date
September 10, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Maria Antonietta Costa, Carney Matheson, Lucia Iachetta, Agustín Llagostera, et al
Volume
4
Issue
9
Pages
e6983
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0006983
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746163
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735183
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19746163
Web of Science
000269696500004
Scopus
70349173435
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/ancient-leishmaniasis-highland-desert-northern-chile
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Ancient Leishmaniasis in a highland desert of Northern Chile", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maria Antonietta", "last_name"=>"Costa", "scopus_author_id"=>"55453277900"}, {"first_name"=>"Carney", "last_name"=>"Matheson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003292392"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucia", "last_name"=>"Iachetta", "scopus_author_id"=>"34881585000"}, {"first_name"=>"Agustín", "last_name"=>"Llagostera", "scopus_author_id"=>"14043607100"}, {"first_name"=>"Otto", "last_name"=>"Appenzeller", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006367369"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"355275636", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006983", "sgr"=>"70349173435", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70349173435", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"19746163"}, "id"=>"335fc278-7034-301b-bbfb-0757240c7bba", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area-likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ancient-leishmaniasis-highland-desert-northern-chile", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Arts and Humanities"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>6}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "Portugal"=>3}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884363"], "description"=>"<p>Lane 1 contains a 100 bp molecular marker; lanes 2 to 6 and 9 to 13 contain two extracts of samples 1 and 2, and one extract of sample 3 respectively; lanes 7 and 14 contain an extract negative and lanes 8 and 15 contain a PCR negative. Red arrows arrows to indicate the position of the amplified DNA on the gel images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gel", "electrophoresis", "samples", "primer", "sets"], "article_id"=>554813, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Computational Biology", "Virology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Maria Antonietta Costa", "Carney Matheson", "Lucia Iachetta", "Agustín Llagostera", "Otto Appenzeller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Polyacrylamide_gel_electrophoresis_of_samples_1_to_3_using_primer_sets_LD1F_LD1R_and_LD3F_LD3R_/554813", "title"=>"Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of samples 1 to 3 using primer sets LD1F/LD1R and LD3F/LD3R.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:20:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884030"], "description"=>"<p>Enlarged on the right. The village of San Pedro de Atacama; blue arrow. The archeological sites (digs) are enlarged at the bottom. Cojo Oriental indicated by broken red arrow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chile", "san", "pedro", "de", "atacama", "indicated"], "article_id"=>554479, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Computational Biology", "Virology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Maria Antonietta Costa", "Carney Matheson", "Lucia Iachetta", "Agustín Llagostera", "Otto Appenzeller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Chile_left_with_the_district_of_San_Pedro_de_Atacama_indicated_in_black_fil_/554479", "title"=>"Map of Chile (left) with the district of San Pedro de Atacama indicated in black-fil.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:14:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884198"], "description"=>"<p>They show extensive, destructive lesions (outlined by broken lines) caused by chronic Leishmania infection. 1. Skull # 4156 (12204), age 45–49 years showing facial boney erosions on the left side, with evidence of healing. The grave contained baskets and bags filled with quinoa, wool and human hair. The lesions were extensive involving the orbit, the nasal bones, the maxillary, the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, the maxilla and the frontal bone. The inferior orbital rim was destroyed. In the remaining maxilla 2 suppuration tracks were visible. Evidence for periostitis was found in the frontal bone. The hard palate was not involved. The mandible was not examined. 2. Skull # 3984 (9791) aged 30–40 years. Left sided, lesions involving the nose and orbit with evidence of partial healing. The grave contained 3 additioal adults, and also pottery, baskets and 1 pumpkin. Extensive lesions involving the orbit, the nasal bones, the maxillary, the ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses, the maxilla and the frontal bone. There was thinning of the entire orbital circumference. Suppuration tracks were visible in the ethmoid and in the frontal bone. A vertical fracture with depression and displacement towards the left was found between the glabella and the frontal bone. The mandible was normal. 3. Skull # 5377 (9858), age 35–39. Right-sided boney erosions with evidence of healing. The maxilla and nasal bones were missing. The hard palate on the left was also involved. The grave contained 3 additional adults and a large number of ceramics, baskets, a malachite necklace and 1 bag filled with red earth and snail shells, 1 spoon and 3 pumpkins. Deformed porous bone was evident in the region of the right pyramidal process. The zygomatic arch was also deformed by porous boney outgrowth and largely remodeled. Partial destruction of the left hard palate was present. The malar and frontal portions of the orbital rim were thinned but still discernable. The mandible was not involved. 4. Skull # 3938 (14673), age 40–44 years. The grave contained also a man a woman and 2 fetuses. There were a malachite necklace, a basket and ceramic objects. The right sided facial bones were destroyed by the infection. The mandible was not affected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["skulls", "cojo", "oriental", "san", "pedro", "de", "atcama"], "article_id"=>554641, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Computational Biology", "Virology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Maria Antonietta Costa", "Carney Matheson", "Lucia Iachetta", "Agustín Llagostera", "Otto Appenzeller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Four_female_skulls_from_ancient_graves_from_Cojo_Oriental_cemetery_San_Pedro_de_Atcama_Northern_Chile_/554641", "title"=>"Four female skulls from ancient graves, from Cojo Oriental cemetery, San Pedro de Atcama Northern Chile.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:17:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884499"], "description"=>"<p>Lane 1 contains 100 bp molecular marker; lane 2 is blank; lanes 3 to 6 represents samples 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively; lanes 8, 9, 10 contain the extract negative, purification negative and PCR negative respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gel", "electrophoresis", "samples", "primer", "sets"], "article_id"=>554954, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Computational Biology", "Virology", "Cell Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Maria Antonietta Costa", "Carney Matheson", "Lucia Iachetta", "Agustín Llagostera", "Otto Appenzeller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Polyacrylamide_gel_electrophoresis_of_samples_1_to_4_using_primer_sets_LD1F_LD1R_a_LD2F_LD2R_b_and_LD4F_LD4R_c_/554954", "title"=>"Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of samples 1 to 4 using primer sets LD1F/LD1R (a), LD2F/LD2R (b) and LD4F/LD4R (c).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:22:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438463", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438506", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438565", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438638", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438698"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America.</p><h3>Methodology</h3><p>We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leishmaniasis", "highland", "chile"], "article_id"=>146447, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Biological Sciences", "Cancer", "Cell Biology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Maria Antonietta Costa", "Carney Matheson", "Lucia Iachetta", "Agustín Llagostera", "Otto Appenzeller"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006983.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>34, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ancient_Leishmaniasis_in_a_Highland_Desert_of_Northern_Chile/146447", "title"=>"Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:47:27"}

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