Climate Change and the Potential Spreading of Marine Mucilage and Microbial Pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea
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{"title"=>"Climate change and the potential spreading of marine mucilage and microbial pathogens in the mediterranean sea", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roberto", "last_name"=>"Danovaro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004303561"}, {"first_name"=>"Serena Fonda", "last_name"=>"Umani", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701768424"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Pusceddu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004476663"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"70349617310", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007006", "pui"=>"355364841", "pmid"=>"19759910", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70349617310", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"fae98ceb-8aa9-3dc0-b1b6-bb65851b0458", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties) is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/climate-change-potential-spreading-marine-mucilage-microbial-pathogens-mediterranean-sea", "reader_count"=>132, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>35, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>66, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>66}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>35}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Hong Kong"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Ireland"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>4, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/883510"], "description"=>"<p>Image of mucilage in surface off-shore waters (A) and in an advanced stage of coalescence, after sampling (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences/biological oceanography", "marine and aquatic sciences/ecology", "marine and aquatic sciences/microbiology"], "article_id"=>553968, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Roberto Danovaro", "Serena Fonda Umani", "Antonio Pusceddu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mucilage_and_the_8220_mare_sporco_8221_dirty_sea_phenomenon_/553968", "title"=>"Mucilage and the “mare sporco” (dirty sea) phenomenon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-16 01:06:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438095", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438135"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Marine snow (small amorphous aggregates with colloidal properties) is present in all oceans of the world. Surface water warming and the consequent increase of water column stability can favour the coalescence of marine snow into marine mucilage, large marine aggregates representing an ephemeral and extreme habitat. Marine mucilage characterize aquatic systems with altered environmental conditions.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We investigated, by means of molecular techniques, viruses and prokaryotes within the mucilage and in surrounding seawater to examine the potential of mucilage to host new microbial diversity and/or spread marine diseases. We found that marine mucilage contained a large and unexpectedly exclusive microbial biodiversity and hosted pathogenic species that were absent in surrounding seawater. We also investigated the relationship between climate change and the frequency of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea over the last 200 years and found that the number of mucilage outbreaks increased almost exponentially in the last 20 years. The increasing frequency of mucilage outbreaks is closely associated with the temperature anomalies.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>We conclude that the spreading of mucilage in the Mediterranean Sea is linked to climate-driven sea surface warming. The mucilage can act as a controlling factor of microbial diversity across wide oceanic regions and could have the potential to act as a carrier of specific microorganisms, thereby increasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spreading", "mucilage", "microbial", "pathogens", "mediterranean"], "article_id"=>146361, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Roberto Danovaro", "Serena Fonda Umani", "Antonio Pusceddu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Climate_Change_and_the_Potential_Spreading_of_Marine_Mucilage_and_Microbial_Pathogens_in_the_Mediterranean_Sea/146361", "title"=>"Climate Change and the Potential Spreading of Marine Mucilage and Microbial Pathogens in the Mediterranean Sea", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-09-16 01:46:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/883682"], "description"=>"<p>(A) viral and prokaryotic abundance; (B) bacterial diversity (as OTU, Operational Taxonomic Units); (C) electropherograms of DNA extracted from a mucilage sample and surrounding seawater; (D) number of pathogens. Panel B illustrates diversity of bacterial assemblage: species in common are represented using the same colour. In Panel C, each peak corresponds to an interval of ±2 base pairs, is assumed to represent a different OTU, and the height of the peak is assumed to represent the quantity of each single OTU.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance", "mucilage"], "article_id"=>554138, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Roberto Danovaro", "Serena Fonda Umani", "Antonio Pusceddu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microbial_abundance_and_diversity_in_marine_mucilage_and_surrounding_seawater_/554138", "title"=>"Microbial abundance and diversity in marine mucilage and surrounding seawater.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-16 01:08:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/883781"], "description"=>"<p>The areas in the Mediterranean Sea where the mucilage has been documented and the years of appearance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["areas", "mediterranean", "mucilage", "been", "documented", "years"], "article_id"=>554232, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Roberto Danovaro", "Serena Fonda Umani", "Antonio Pusceddu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_areas_in_the_Mediterranean_Sea_where_the_mucilage_has_been_documented_and_the_years_of_appearance_/554232", "title"=>"The areas in the Mediterranean Sea where the mucilage has been documented and the years of appearance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-16 01:10:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/883884"], "description"=>"<p>Annual and decadal temperature anomalies were retrieved from <a href=\"http://www.cpc.noaa.gov\" target=\"_blank\">www.cpc.noaa.gov</a>. Records of mucilage appearance in the Mediterranean Sea are detailed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006#pone.0007006.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mucilage", "occurrence", "mediterranean", "thermal", "decadal"], "article_id"=>554345, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Roberto Danovaro", "Serena Fonda Umani", "Antonio Pusceddu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007006.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_mucilage_occurrence_in_the_Mediterranean_Sea_and_climate_change_as_magnitude_of_the_thermal_anomalies_on_A_annual_basis_B_decadal_basis_/554345", "title"=>"Relationships between mucilage occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea and climate change (as magnitude of the thermal anomalies) on (A) annual basis, (B) decadal basis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-16 01:12:25"}

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