Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem
Publication Date
October 21, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Thomas W. Plummer, Peter W. Ditchfield, Laura C. Bishop, John D. Kingston, et al
Volume
4
Issue
9
Pages
e7199
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007199
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19844568
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746317
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19844568
Web of Science
000271013000002
Scopus
70449566779
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/oldest-evidence-toolmaking-hominins-grasslanddominated-ecosystem
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Oldest evidence of toolmaking hominins in a grassland-dominated ecosystem", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thomas W.", "last_name"=>"Plummer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006149395"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter W.", "last_name"=>"Ditchfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"55905037700"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura C.", "last_name"=>"Bishop", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007061548"}, {"first_name"=>"John D.", "last_name"=>"Kingston", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102590648"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph V.", "last_name"=>"Ferraro", "scopus_author_id"=>"8387543400"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Braun", "scopus_author_id"=>"23972180300"}, {"first_name"=>"Fritz", "last_name"=>"Hertel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701520367"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Potts", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101638880"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"355633827", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007199", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70449566779", "pmid"=>"19844568", "sgr"=>"70449566779"}, "id"=>"e209c7fb-581f-3bb7-83d5-18bf64f51ebe", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Major biological and cultural innovations in late Pliocene hominin evolution are frequently linked to the spread or fluctuating presence of C(4) grass in African ecosystems. Whereas the deep sea record of global climatic change provides indirect evidence for an increase in C(4) vegetation with a shift towards a cooler, drier and more variable global climatic regime beginning approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), evidence for grassland-dominated ecosystems in continental Africa and hominin activities within such ecosystems have been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report stable isotopic analyses of pedogenic carbonates and ungulate enamel, as well as faunal data from approximately 2.0 Ma archeological occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya. These document repeated hominin activities within a grassland-dominated ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate what hitherto had been speculated based on indirect evidence: that grassland-dominated ecosystems did in fact exist during the Plio-Pleistocene, and that early Homo was active in open settings. Comparison with other Oldowan occurrences indicates that by 2.0 Ma hominins, almost certainly of the genus Homo, used a broad spectrum of habitats in East Africa, from open grassland to riparian forest. This strongly contrasts with the habitat usage of Australopithecus, and may signal an important shift in hominin landscape usage.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oldest-evidence-toolmaking-hominins-grasslanddominated-ecosystem", "reader_count"=>122, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Arts and Humanities"=>15, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>34}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>34}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>15}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Romania"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/878745"], "description"=>"<p>Shaded intervals represent pedogenic nodules forming in C<sub>3</sub> dominated and C<sub>4</sub> dominated environments. Paleosol carbonate δ<sup>13</sup>C values of -2 or greater are approximately equivalent to floral communities with 75% or more C<sub>4</sub> plants <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199#pone.0007199-Sikes2\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>. Intermediate values represent a mix of C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> vegetation. Plant root systems associated with KS-2 archeological site formation could have extended into the top of KS-1, so paleosol carbonate data from both KS-2 and the top of KS-1 are presented.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["carbon", "isotopic", "paleosol", "carbonates", "miocene", "pleistocene", "africa"], "article_id"=>549195, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Plummer", "Peter W. Ditchfield", "Laura C. Bishop", "John D. Kingston", "Joseph V. Ferraro", "David R. Braun", "Fritz Hertel", "Richard Potts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_carbon_isotopic_composition_of_paleosol_carbonates_from_the_late_Miocene_through_Pleistocene_of_East_Africa_7_11_30_33_51_59_/549195", "title"=>"Stable carbon isotopic composition of paleosol carbonates from the late Miocene through Pleistocene of East Africa [7], [11], [30], [33], [51]–[59].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-10-21 02:33:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/878865"], "description"=>"<p>A. Stable carbon isotopic composition of fossil mammal tooth enamel from KS-2 in Excavation 1. The KS-2 fauna is supplemented by several taxa unique to KS-1 or KS-3, or found on the surface of the KS-1 to KS-3 sequence, to provide a more complete sense of the diet of the mammalian community during the deposition of the archeological levels. The shading reflects the relative importance of C<sub>3</sub> browse versus C<sub>4</sub> grass in the diet, with δ<sup>13</sup>C values greater than -1 reflecting a diet with more than 75% C<sub>4</sub> vegetation. Isotopic dietary classification follows others <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199#pone.0007199-Kingston2\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>. A probable ostrich (cf. <i>Struthio</i>) eggshell fragment was also analyzed. B. Box and whiskers plots of the stable carbon isotopic composition of modern and fossil gazelles from Kanjera, Bed I Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and Sterkfontein and Swartkrans, South Africa <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199#pone.0007199-LeeThorp1\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199#pone.0007199-vanderMerwe1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>. Like many modern antilopines, <i>Antidorcas recki</i> was able to switch between browse and graze as necessary <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199#pone.0007199-Bobe1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>. Numbers in parentheses after site name represent number of samples analyzed. Bed I localities are presented in stratigraphic order, from oldest (DK I, ∼1.87 Ma) to youngest (FLK NI, ∼1.78 Ma) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199#pone.0007199-Potts1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["carbon", "isotopic", "enamel", "kanjera", "african"], "article_id"=>549321, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Plummer", "Peter W. Ditchfield", "Laura C. Bishop", "John D. Kingston", "Joseph V. Ferraro", "David R. Braun", "Fritz Hertel", "Richard Potts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_carbon_isotopic_data_of_enamel_from_Kanjera_South_and_other_African_localities_/549321", "title"=>"Stable carbon isotopic data of enamel from Kanjera South and other African localities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-10-21 02:35:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/878586"], "description"=>"<p>The composite stratigraphic log shows the basal three beds of the Southern Member (KS-1 to KS-3) and the base of KS-4. Spatially associated artifacts and fossils are found as diffuse scatters and also in more vertically discrete concentrations from the top of KS-1 through KS-3, with KS-2 providing the bulk of the archeological sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphic", "diagram", "kanjera", "southwestern", "kenya", "exposures"], "article_id"=>549034, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Plummer", "Peter W. Ditchfield", "Laura C. Bishop", "John D. Kingston", "Joseph V. Ferraro", "David R. Braun", "Fritz Hertel", "Richard Potts"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Placement_map_and_stratigraphic_diagram_showing_the_location_of_Kanjera_in_southwestern_Kenya_and_of_the_Southern_Exposures_at_Kanjera_/549034", "title"=>"Placement map and stratigraphic diagram showing the location of Kanjera in southwestern Kenya and of the Southern Exposures at Kanjera.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-10-21 02:30:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/435735", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/435746", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/435759", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/435764"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Major biological and cultural innovations in late Pliocene hominin evolution are frequently linked to the spread or fluctuating presence of C<sub>4</sub> grass in African ecosystems. Whereas the deep sea record of global climatic change provides indirect evidence for an increase in C<sub>4</sub> vegetation with a shift towards a cooler, drier and more variable global climatic regime beginning approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), evidence for grassland-dominated ecosystems in continental Africa and hominin activities within such ecosystems have been lacking.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We report stable isotopic analyses of pedogenic carbonates and ungulate enamel, as well as faunal data from ∼2.0 Ma archeological occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya. These document repeated hominin activities within a grassland-dominated ecosystem.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>These data demonstrate what hitherto had been speculated based on indirect evidence: that grassland-dominated ecosystems did in fact exist during the Plio-Pleistocene, and that early <em>Homo</em> was active in open settings. Comparison with other Oldowan occurrences indicates that by 2.0 Ma hominins, almost certainly of the genus <em>Homo</em>, used a broad spectrum of habitats in East Africa, from open grassland to riparian forest. This strongly contrasts with the habitat usage of <em>Australopithecus</em>, and may signal an important shift in hominin landscape usage.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oldest", "toolmaking", "hominins", "grassland-dominated"], "article_id"=>145923, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Plummer", "Peter W. Ditchfield", "Laura C. Bishop", "John D. Kingston", "Joseph V. Ferraro", "David R. Braun", "Fritz Hertel", "Richard Potts"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007199.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Oldest_Evidence_of_Toolmaking_Hominins_in_a_Grassland_Dominated_Ecosystem/145923", "title"=>"Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-10-21 01:38:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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