The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief
Publication Date
October 01, 2009
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Sam Harris, Jonas T. Kaplan, Ashley Curiel, Susan Y. Bookheimer, et al
Volume
4
Issue
10
Pages
e7272
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007272
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19794914
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748718
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19794914
Web of Science
000270354200005
Scopus
70349678613
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/neural-correlates-religious-nonreligious-belief
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{"title"=>"The neural correlates of religious and nonreligious belief", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sam", "last_name"=>"Harris", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403484968"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonas T.", "last_name"=>"Kaplan", "scopus_author_id"=>"8920820000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ashley", "last_name"=>"Curiel", "scopus_author_id"=>"26221714300"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan Y.", "last_name"=>"Bookheimer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006583787"}, {"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Iacoboni", "scopus_author_id"=>"35593718200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark S.", "last_name"=>"Cohen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35397088400"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"70349678613", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007272", "pui"=>"355371554", "pmid"=>"19794914", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70349678613", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"b1b1ef8f-e131-3cc7-b9c4-f053e4187786", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition [1], and others have looked specifically at religious belief [2]. However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects-fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers-as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both groups, and in both categories of stimuli, belief (judgments of \"true\" vs judgments of \"false\") was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for self-representation [3], [4], [5], [6], emotional associations [7], reward [8], [9], [10], and goal-driven behavior [11]. This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. or statements about ordinary facts. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content-independent. Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and, as such, constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion. However, these findings may also further our understanding of how the brain accepts statements of all kinds to be valid descriptions of the world.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neural-correlates-religious-nonreligious-belief", "reader_count"=>383, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>26, "Researcher"=>65, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>20, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>79, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>52, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>54, "Lecturer"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>29}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>26, "Researcher"=>65, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>20, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>79, "Student > Postgraduate"=>15, "Student > Master"=>52, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>54, "Lecturer"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>29}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56, "Philosophy"=>18, "Arts and Humanities"=>14, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>7, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>16, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>50, "Neuroscience"=>19, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>124, "Social Sciences"=>27, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>50}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>27}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>124}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>21}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>14}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>16}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>19}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>7}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>18}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>20, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>8, "Ghana"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>4, "Sweden"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "China"=>1, "Taiwan"=>2, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Poland"=>2, "South Africa"=>4, "Italy"=>3, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882303"], "description"=>"<p>Religious minus nonreligious statements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["minus", "nonreligious"], "article_id"=>552755, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Religious_minus_nonreligious_statements_/552755", "title"=>"Religious minus nonreligious statements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:45:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882262"], "description"=>"<p>Disbelief minus belief.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["minus"], "article_id"=>552725, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Disbelief_minus_belief_/552725", "title"=>"Disbelief minus belief.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:45:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882058"], "description"=>"<p>There were significant differences between blasphemous and non-blasphemous statements in both groups. These are regions that show greater signal both when Christians reject stimuli contrary to their doctrine (e.g. “The Biblical god is a myth”) and when nonbelievers affirm their belief in those same statements (pc = paracingulate gyrus; mf = middle frontal gyrus; vs = ventral striatum; ip = inferior parietal lobe; fp = frontal pole). Error bars represent standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blasphemy"], "article_id"=>552518, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reponses_to_blasphemy_in_both_groups_/552518", "title"=>"Reponses to blasphemy in both groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:41:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/436959", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437108", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437165"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Harris1\">[1]</a>, and others have looked specifically at religious belief <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Kapogiannis1\">[2]</a>. However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects—fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers—as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both groups, and in both categories of stimuli, belief (judgments of “true” vs judgments of “false”) was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for self-representation <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Northoff1\">[3]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-DArgembeau1\">[4]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Moran1\">[5]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Schneider1\">[6]</a>, emotional associations <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Bechara1\">[7]</a>, reward <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Hornak1\">[8]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Rolls1\">[9]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-ODoherty1\">[10]</a>, and goal-driven behavior <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272#pone.0007272-Matsumoto1\">[11]</a>. This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. or statements about ordinary facts. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content-independent. Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and, as such, constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion. However, these findings may also further our understanding of how the brain accepts statements of all kinds to be valid descriptions of the world.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neural", "correlates", "nonreligious"], "article_id"=>146161, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Neural_Correlates_of_Religious_and_Nonreligious_Belief/146161", "title"=>"The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 01:42:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882135"], "description"=>"<p>Nonreligious minus Religious statements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["minus"], "article_id"=>552591, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nonreligious_minus_Religious_statements_/552591", "title"=>"Nonreligious minus Religious statements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:43:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882206"], "description"=>"<p>Subject Data: The mean full-scale WASI scores, years of education, and ages for all subjects retained in this experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["full-scale", "wasi", "years", "ages", "subjects", "retained"], "article_id"=>552656, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subject_Data_The_mean_full_scale_WASI_scores_years_of_education_and_ages_for_all_subjects_retained_in_this_experiment_/552656", "title"=>"Subject Data: The mean full-scale WASI scores, years of education, and ages for all subjects retained in this experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:44:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881947"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The MRI signal was greater when subjects evaluated religious statements compared with nonreligious statements in areas throughout the brain, including the precuneus, anterior cingulate, insula, and ventral striatum. (B) Increased signal was found for nonreligious statements compared with religious statements in several left hemisphere regions including the parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, temporal pole, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nonreligious"], "article_id"=>552402, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Religious_versus_nonreligious_statements_/552402", "title"=>"Religious versus nonreligious statements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:40:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882233"], "description"=>"<p>Belief minus disbelief.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["minus"], "article_id"=>552687, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Belief_minus_disbelief_/552687", "title"=>"Belief minus disbelief.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:44:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881871"], "description"=>"<p>Greater signal for belief compared with disbelief appeared in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, lateral occipital cortex, and superior frontal gyrus. The bottom panel shows percent signal change from baseline in each of the clusters (vmpc = ventromedial prefrontal cortex; log = lateral occipital gyrus; sfg = superior frontal gyrus). Error bars represent standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["minus", "disbelief"], "article_id"=>552324, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Belief_minus_disbelief_Both_Categories_Both_Groups_/552324", "title"=>"Belief minus disbelief (Both Categories; Both Groups).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:38:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882168"], "description"=>"<p>Double subtraction (“blasphemy” contrast).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subtraction"], "article_id"=>552626, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Sam Harris", "Jonas T. Kaplan", "Ashley Curiel", "Susan Y. Bookheimer", "Marco Iacoboni", "Mark S. Cohen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Double_subtraction_8220_blasphemy_8221_contrast_/552626", "title"=>"Double subtraction (“blasphemy” contrast).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-10-01 00:43:46"}

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Relative Metric

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