Transposition and Intermingling of Gαi2 and Gαo Afferences into Single Vomeronasal Glomeruli in the Madagascan Lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi
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{"title"=>"Transposition and intermingling of Gαi2 and Gαo afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rodrigo", "last_name"=>"Suárez", "scopus_author_id"=>"8426672200"}, {"first_name"=>"Aldo", "last_name"=>"Villalón", "scopus_author_id"=>"26538375100"}, {"first_name"=>"Heinz", "last_name"=>"Künzle", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004578016"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Mpodozis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602399265"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"355735351", "sgr"=>"71049194412", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-71049194412", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"19956694", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0008005", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"757f7265-2a22-3754-a3c7-e1b1dc9caf76", "abstract"=>"The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/transposition-intermingling-g%CE%B1i2-g%CE%B1o-afferences-single-vomeronasal-glomeruli-madagascan-lesser-tenre", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Chemistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/433903", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/433946"], "description"=>"<div><p>The vomeronasal system (VNS) mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Gαi2 or Gαo proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Gαi2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species). We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec <em>Echinops telfairi</em> (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida) and found that Gαi2 and Gαo proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transposition", "intermingling", "afferences", "vomeronasal", "glomeruli", "madagascan", "lesser", "tenrec"], "article_id"=>145609, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Aldo Villalón", "Heinz Künzle", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transposition_and_Intermingling_of_G_i2_and_G_o_Afferences_into_Single_Vomeronasal_Glomeruli_in_the_Madagascan_Lesser_Tenrec_Echinops_telfairi_/145609", "title"=>"Transposition and Intermingling of Gαi2 and Gαo Afferences into Single Vomeronasal Glomeruli in the Madagascan Lesser Tenrec <em>Echinops telfairi</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-11-24 01:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874818"], "description"=>"<p>Chronogram of placental mammals showing the presence of both vomeronasal pathways (black lines), the V1R-Gαi pathway only (red lines), or the complete loss of both pathways (interrupted line). Two independent events of degeneration of the V2R-Gαo pathway might have occurred in the lineages leading to Primates and Laurasiatheria. Estimated times of divergence are based on refs. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005#pone.0008005-Hallstrm1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005#pone.0008005-Murphy1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005#pone.0008005-Springer1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a> for nodes 1–4, 6, 7, and on ref. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005#pone.0008005-Glazko1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a> for node 5.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vomeronasal", "pathways"], "article_id"=>545275, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Aldo Villalón", "Heinz Künzle", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_the_vomeronasal_pathways_in_Eutheria_/545275", "title"=>"Distribution of the vomeronasal pathways in Eutheria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-11-24 01:27:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874755"], "description"=>"<p>The organization of the main olfactory system has been regarded to as a labeled line. Sensory neurons expressing the same receptor converge their afferences into single glomeruli, where synaptic contact is established with only one M/T cell, in a one-to-one topology. Thus, each olfactory receptor is represented by a single M/T cell. The accessory olfactory system, however, is integrative in the sense that each sensory neuron sends projections to several glomeruli and each M/T cell contacts several glomeruli. Although M/T cells contact glomeruli receiving afferences from different receptors, they integrate glomeruli from the same V1R or V2R subpopulation, most probably from closely related receptors. This dichotomic segregation suggests that no M/T cell contact glomeruli from both subpopulations. The non-exclusive segregation of vomeronasal afferences of the tenrec is characterized by the integration of afferences from both subpopulations into single glomeruli, suggesting that AOB neurons (such as M/T or periglomerular) may also make synaptic contact with both subpopulations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["connectivity", "chemosensory"], "article_id"=>545222, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Aldo Villalón", "Heinz Künzle", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patterns_of_connectivity_in_chemosensory_systems_/545222", "title"=>"Patterns of connectivity in chemosensory systems.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-11-24 01:27:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874428"], "description"=>"<p>Sagittal sections of the tenrec olfactory bulb immunolabelled against Gαi2 (A–C) or Gαo (D–E) proteins and counterstained with cresyl violet. (A) The relative sizes of the AOB and the MOB, and the continuity of the AONc towards the FrCx can be appreciated. Gαi2-expressing glomeruli are located at the rostral aspect of the AOB (A–C), however some glomeruli are displaced to caudal territories (arrowhead in C). The margin between the AOB and MOB is depicted by a discontinuous line (B–D). The Gr and AONe are ventral to the lot, and differ in their clustering (B). (C) Higher magnification of (B) showing the rostro-caudal asymmetry of M/T. (D) Gαo-expressing glomeruli are located at the caudal AOB, but not all caudal glomeruli seem to show full expression. (E) The cellular layers of the MOB are compactly stratified. All MOB glomeruli express Gαo protein, and they are larger and better defined than those of the AOB (compare with C, same magnification). AONc, anterior olfactory nucleus, central aspect; AONe, anterior olfactory nucleus external aspect; EPi, external plexiform layer, inner sublayer; EPo, external plexiform layer, outer sublayer; Gl, glomerular layer; Gr, granular cell layer; IP, internal plexiform layer; lot, lateral olfactory tract; M/T, mitral/tufted cell layer. Scale bar: 500 µm in A, 200 µm in B and D, and 100 µm in C and E.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["accessory", "olfactory"], "article_id"=>544886, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Aldo Villalón", "Heinz Künzle", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_accessory_olfactory_bulb_AOB_of_the_tenrec_/544886", "title"=>"The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of the tenrec.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-11-24 01:21:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/874577"], "description"=>"<p>Confocal 3D reconstructions of Gαi2 and Gαo afferences into the AOB of a representative specimen. (A) Serial sagittal sections 50 µm width, separated 300 µm each, showing Gαi2-expressing axons (green) passing through Gαo-expressing glomeruli (red), to occupy an anterior position at the AOB. Sections are arranged from medial (left) to lateral (right). (B) Three-dimensional confocal reconstruction of the last picture of (A) represented as seen from one side (top row), from a ventral transverse view (middle row) and from the opposite side (bottom row). Each row shows Gαi2, Gαo and both labels. Arrows depict transposed glomeruli. Fibers that cross to the opposite subdivision are indicated with arrowheads. Interrupted lines contour glomeruli containing both Gαi2- and Gαo-expressing elements. Glomeruli presumably containing axonal boutons and/or neuropil of the adjoined subpopulation are indicated with asteriks. Scale bar: 200 µm in A, 50 µm in B.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["segregation", "vomeronasal", "afferences", "aob"], "article_id"=>545033, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Rodrigo Suárez", "Aldo Villalón", "Heinz Künzle", "Jorge Mpodozis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008005.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_exclusive_segregation_of_vomeronasal_afferences_in_the_AOB_of_the_tenrec_/545033", "title"=>"Non-exclusive segregation of vomeronasal afferences in the AOB of the tenrec.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-11-24 01:23:53"}

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Relative Metric

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