High and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas
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{"title"=>"High and far: Biases in the location of protected areas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lucas N.", "last_name"=>"Joppa", "scopus_author_id"=>"23566616300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Pfaff", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005108800"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77949517863", "sgr"=>"77949517863", "pui"=>"359087590", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"20011603", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0008273"}, "id"=>"9a0782be-674a-3d01-898b-93a252715451", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: About an eighth of the earth's land surface is in protected areas (hereafter \"PAs\"), most created during the 20(th) century. Natural landscapes are critical for species persistence and PAs can play a major role in conservation and in climate policy. Such contributions may be harder than expected to implement if new PAs are constrained to the same kinds of locations that PAs currently occupy.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitatively extending the perception that PAs occupy \"rock and ice\", we show that across 147 nations PA networks are biased towards places that are unlikely to face land conversion pressures even in the absence of protection. We test each country's PA network for bias in elevation, slope, distances to roads and cities, and suitability for agriculture. Further, within each country's set of PAs, we also ask if the level of protection is biased in these ways. We find that the significant majority of national PA networks are biased to higher elevations, steeper slopes and greater distances to roads and cities. Also, within a country, PAs with higher protection status are more biased than are the PAs with lower protection statuses.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In sum, PAs are biased towards where they can least prevent land conversion (even if they offer perfect protection). These globally comprehensive results extend findings from nation-level analyses. They imply that siting rules such as the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target [to protect 10% of all ecoregions] might raise PA impacts if applied at the country level. In light of the potential for global carbon-based payments for avoided deforestation or REDD, these results suggest that attention to threat could improve outcomes from the creation and management of PAs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-far-biases-location-protected-areas", "reader_count"=>490, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>138, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>114, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>77, "Other"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>138, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>114, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>77, "Other"=>27, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>35, "Environmental Science"=>182, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>219, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>25, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>25}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>219}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>35}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>182}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>10, "Belize"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>5, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "China"=>2, "Finland"=>4, "Brazil"=>7, "Italy"=>5, "Mexico"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>21}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/432606", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/432638"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>About an eighth of the earth's land surface is in protected areas (hereafter “PAs”), most created during the 20<sup>th</sup> century. Natural landscapes are critical for species persistence and PAs can play a major role in conservation and in climate policy. Such contributions may be harder than expected to implement if new PAs are constrained to the same kinds of locations that PAs currently occupy.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Quantitatively extending the perception that PAs occupy “rock and ice”, we show that across 147 nations PA networks are biased towards places that are unlikely to face land conversion pressures even in the absence of protection. We test each country's PA network for bias in elevation, slope, distances to roads and cities, and suitability for agriculture. Further, within each country's set of PAs, we also ask if the level of protection is biased in these ways. We find that the significant majority of national PA networks are biased to higher elevations, steeper slopes and greater distances to roads and cities. Also, within a country, PAs with higher protection status are more biased than are the PAs with lower protection statuses.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>In sum, PAs are biased towards where they can least prevent land conversion (even if they offer perfect protection). These globally comprehensive results extend findings from nation-level analyses. They imply that siting rules such as the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target [to protect 10% of all ecoregions] might raise PA impacts if applied at the country level. In light of the potential for global carbon-based payments for avoided deforestation or REDD, these results suggest that attention to threat could improve outcomes from the creation and management of PAs.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biases", "protected", "areas"], "article_id"=>145365, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Lucas N. Joppa", "Alexander Pfaff"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/High_and_Far_Biases_in_the_Location_of_Protected_Areas/145365", "title"=>"High and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-12-14 01:29:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/871349"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, <b>B</b>, <b>C</b>, <b>D</b>, <b>E</b>, <b>F</b>, <b>G</b> each plots the cumulative number of countries at 20 year increments. PAs with no date of creation in the database occur first in 1900, and remain in each preceding temporal increment. <b>H</b>) Number of ecoregions versus the percent of a country's ecoregions protected. No trend is found for countries with many ecoregions to differ greatly from those with few.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["countries", "percent", "ecoregions", "greater"], "article_id"=>541807, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Lucas N. Joppa", "Alexander Pfaff"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_countries_and_the_percent_of_their_ecoregions_with_greater_than_10_protection_/541807", "title"=>"Numbers of countries and the percent of their ecoregions with greater than 10% protection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-14 00:30:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/871423"], "description"=>"<p>Variables include elevation, slope, distance to roads, distance to urban areas, species richness, and agricultural suitability. The x-axis corresponds to the variable being measured. The y-axis is the difference between the proportion of the country at each interval and the proportion of the network at the same interval. Values greater than zero (dashed horizontal line) indicate a disproportionate level of protection, while values less than zero indicate a disproportionate absence of protection. Visualizing network distributions in this way allows one to see discrepancies in protection across wide ranges of variables at a high resolution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["iucn", "protected", "united"], "article_id"=>541881, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Lucas N. Joppa", "Alexander Pfaff"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_full_description_of_the_IUCN_I_VI_protected_area_network_for_the_United_States_/541881", "title"=>"A full description of the IUCN I/VI protected area network for the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-12-14 00:31:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/871525"], "description"=>"<p>The left side of the table (<b>A</b>) presents the results for models predicting IUCN Category I – VI levels of protection against no protection and corresponds to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273#pone.0008273.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a>. The right side of the table (<b>B</b>) contains results for modeling IUCN Category I or II (most highly protected) within the protected area network and corresponds to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273#pone.0008273.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>. The “Countries” column contains the total number of countries where the corresponding predictive variable (ex: slope) was a significant predictive factor of protection. “Positive” indicates the variable was positively correlated with protection, while “Negative” is the opposite. Statistical significance of the trend was conducted using a binomial sign test, and ** indicates the trend is significant at the 0.01 level, while * shows significance at the 0.05 level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/community ecology and biodiversity", "ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/ecosystem ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology"], "article_id"=>541979, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Lucas N. Joppa", "Alexander Pfaff"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008273.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_for_the_individual_country_models_/541979", "title"=>"Summary statistics for the individual country models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-12-14 00:32:59"}

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Relative Metric

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