Cognitive and Motivational Requirements for the Emergence of Cooperation in a Rat Social Game
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{"title"=>"Cognitive and motivational requirements for the emergence of cooperation in a rat social game", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Duarte S.", "last_name"=>"Viana", "scopus_author_id"=>"56452812800"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabel", "last_name"=>"Gordo", "scopus_author_id"=>"14043459700"}, {"first_name"=>"Élio", "last_name"=>"Sucena", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506042488"}, {"first_name"=>"Marta A.P.", "last_name"=>"Moita", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602258259"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77649241170", "sgr"=>"77649241170", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0008483", "pmid"=>"20084113", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"358394598"}, "id"=>"ac2558f7-273b-3781-a3ac-83905a0ffcce", "abstract"=>"Game theory and the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game in particular, which captures the paradox of cooperative interactions that lead to benefits but entail costs to the interacting individuals, have constituted a powerful tool in the study of the mechanisms of reciprocity. However, in non-human animals most tests of reciprocity in PD games have resulted in sustained defection strategies. As a consequence, it has been suggested that under such stringent conditions as the PD game humans alone have evolved the necessary cognitive abilities to engage in reciprocity, namely, numerical discrimination, memory and control of temporal discounting.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cognitive-motivational-requirements-emergence-cooperation-rat-social-game", "reader_count"=>191, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>52, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Researcher"=>39, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>52, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>79, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>8, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>18, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>48, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>48}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>18}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>79}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>8}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Ghana"=>1, "Portugal"=>3, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>5}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868410"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Line graph showing the cooperation rate of each rat throughout the game sessions. (<b>b</b>) Bar graphs show incidence rate of all outcomes when cooperation reaches stability. (<b>c</b>) Line graph showing probability of cooperation after each outcome (<b>d</b>) Diagram showing the probability of transition between outcomes. All graphs and diagrams and notations as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#pone-0008483-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. Asterisks denote significant difference from chance <i>P</i><0.0083 (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/behavioral ecology", "evolutionary biology/animal behavior", "neuroscience/animal cognition", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>538861, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rats_shape_their_strategy_according_to_economic_terms_of_the_game_/538861", "title"=>"Rats shape their strategy according to economic terms of the game.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:27:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868331"], "description"=>"<p>Simulated games using TFT and PR were performed using the empirically determined cooperation probabilities after each outcome, T, R, P and S, of the game (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#pone-0008483-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1d and h</a>). (<b>left panel</b>) Bar graph showing average outcome, rewards and punishments, per session (sum of 20 trials) of the experimental TFT game and, TFT-based simulation against TFT and Random. (<b>right panel</b>) Bar graph showing average outcome, rewards and punishments, per session (sum of 20 trials) of the experimental PR game and, PR-based simulation against TFT and Random. Dashed lines represent the theoretically predicted optimal values for a 20-trial session when the opponent is playing TFT (panel a) and Random (panel b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviour"], "article_id"=>538790, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rats_adjust_their_strategy_to_the_behaviour_of_the_opponent_/538790", "title"=>"Rats adjust their strategy to the behaviour of the opponent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868661"], "description"=>"<p>The table shows the choices of the two players (cooperate or defect) and the resulting payoffs (with the exception of experiments shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#pone-0008483-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#pone.0008483.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a> top panel). The payoffs shown result from cooperation or defection choices by the target rat (horizontal rows), when the stooge rat (columns) either cooperates or defects. R- reward, T- temptation, P- punishment, S- sucker.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["payoff"], "article_id"=>539127, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prisoner_s_Dilemma_Payoff_Matrix_/539127", "title"=>"Prisoner's Dilemma Payoff Matrix.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:32:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868535"], "description"=>"<p>Left panel shows time-course of cooperation rate along the ten game sessions for each iPD game (mean±s.e.m.). Each line represents one of the games tested. Right panel shows proportion of cooperation in each iPD game (mean±s.e.m.) when cooperation reaches stability (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#s4\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>). Each bar represents one game (same colour as in line graph). Asterisk, denote significant difference between means (Multiple pairwise comparisons, using Dunn's Procedure, two tailed Bonferroni corrected, <i>P</i><0.0083).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "ipd"], "article_id"=>538996, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cooperation_levels_vary_with_the_different_iPD_games_/538996", "title"=>"Cooperation levels vary with the different iPD games.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:29:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/430831", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/430862", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/430895"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Game theory and the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game in particular, which captures the paradox of cooperative interactions that lead to benefits but entail costs to the interacting individuals, have constituted a powerful tool in the study of the mechanisms of reciprocity. However, in non-human animals most tests of reciprocity in PD games have resulted in sustained defection strategie<em>s</em>. As a consequence, it has been suggested that under such stringent conditions as the PD game humans alone have evolved the necessary cognitive abilities to engage in reciprocity, namely, numerical discrimination, memory and control of temporal discounting.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We use an iterated PD game to test rats (<em>Rattus norvegicus</em>) for the presence of such cognitive abilities by manipulating the strategy of the opponent, Tit-for-Tat and Pseudo-Random, or the relative size of the temptation to defect. We found that rats shape their behaviour according to the opponent's strategy and the relative outcome resulting from cooperative or defective moves. Finally, we show that the behaviour of rats is contingent upon their motivational state (hungry versus sated).</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Here we show that rats understand the payoff matrix of the PD game and the strategy of the opponent. Importantly, our findings reveal that rats possess the necessary cognitive capacities for reciprocity-based cooperation to emerge in the context of a prisoner's dilemma. Finally, the validation of the rat as a model to study reciprocity-based cooperation during the PD game opens new avenues of research in experimental neuroscience.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivational", "requirements", "emergence"], "article_id"=>145026, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cognitive_and_Motivational_Requirements_for_the_Emergence_of_Cooperation_in_a_Rat_Social_Game/145026", "title"=>"Cognitive and Motivational Requirements for the Emergence of Cooperation in a Rat Social Game", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 01:23:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868614"], "description"=>"<p>Diagram of the double T-maze used in the presented experiments. One T-maze is represented in grey with its respective start box and two choice compartments. In dashed lines is shown the identical opposing T-maze. Arrows show the movement direction of the start box door and of the partition between compartments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/behavioral ecology", "evolutionary biology/animal behavior", "neuroscience/animal cognition", "neuroscience/behavioral neuroscience", "neuroscience/experimental psychology"], "article_id"=>539068, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_maze_diagram_/539068", "title"=>"T-maze diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:31:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868475"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>a</b>) Line graph showing the cooperation rate of each rat throughout the game sessions. (<b>b</b>) Bar graphs show incidence rate of all outcomes when cooperation reaches stability. (<b>c</b>) Line graph showing probability of cooperation after each outcome (<b>d</b>) Diagram showing the probability of transition between outcomes. All graphs and diagrams and notations as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#pone-0008483-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. Asterisks denote significant difference from chance <i>P</i><0.0083 (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivational"], "article_id"=>538935, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rats_shape_their_strategy_according_to_their_motivational_state_/538935", "title"=>"Rats shape their strategy according to their motivational state.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:28:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/868159"], "description"=>"<p>Sated rats playing under a matrix T = 6, R = 4, P = −1, S = −3 against a Tit-for-Tat (TFT) opponent (<b>a–d</b>) or a pseudo-random (PR) opponent (<b>e–h</b>). (<b>a</b>,<b>e</b>) Line graph showing the cooperation rate of each rat throughout the game sessions. (<b>b</b>,<b>f</b>) Bar graph shows incidence rate of all outcomes when cooperation reaches stability (mean±s.e.m.; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). For each outcome, the moves of the target (underlined) and of the stooge rat are indicated in the graph legend. Asterisks denote significant difference between means (Multiple pairwise comparisons, using Nemenyi's Procedure, two tailed, Bonferroni corrected, <i>P</i><0.0083). (<b>c</b>,<b>g</b>) Line graph showing probability of cooperation (at trial, t = 0) after x outcome (at trial, t = −1), P(C<sub>0</sub>|X<sub>−1</sub>), where X = T, R, P or S. Black lines represent P(C<sub>0</sub>|X<sub>−1</sub>), for each target rat, the dark blue line represents the mean P(C<sub>0</sub>|X<sub>−1</sub>) and the light blue band shows the s.e.m. (<b>d</b>,<b>h</b>) diagram showing the probability of transition between outcomes. Arrows represent transitions: driven by cooperation in blue, and driven by defection in red (arrow thickness proportional to transition probability). Asterisks denote significant difference from chance <i>P</i><0.0083 (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). T, temptation; R, reward; P, punishment; S, Sucker; C, cooperation; D, defection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviour"], "article_id"=>538616, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Duarte S. Viana", "Isabel Gordo", "Élio Sucena", "Marta A. P. Moita"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008483.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rats_adapt_their_behaviour_to_the_strategy_of_the_opponent_/538616", "title"=>"Rats adapt their behaviour to the strategy of the opponent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-01-13 02:23:36"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

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