CD8+ DC, but Not CD8DC, Isolated from BCG-Infected Mice Reduces Pathological Reactions Induced by Mycobacterial Challenge Infection
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{"title"=>"CD8+ DC, but not CD8-DC, isolated from BCG-infected mice reduces pathological reactions induced by mycobacterial challenge infection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xiaoling", "last_name"=>"Gao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55712051600"}, {"first_name"=>"Shuhe", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410334715"}, {"first_name"=>"Yijun", "last_name"=>"Fan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403492643"}, {"first_name"=>"Hong", "last_name"=>"Bai", "scopus_author_id"=>"35228573100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jie", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192451815"}, {"first_name"=>"Xi", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406502730"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77949521575", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009281", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"358466873", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"20174628", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77949521575"}, "id"=>"b5d70cbf-5fb0-3297-aeff-50acc1773942", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a mycobacterial infection causing worldwide public health problems but the available vaccine is far from ideal. Type-1 T cell immunity has been shown to be critical for host defence against tuberculosis infection, but the role of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection remains unclear.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effectiveness of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in BCG-infected mice in generating immune responses beneficial for pathogen clearance and reduction of pathological reactions in the tissues following challenge infection. Our data showed that only the adoptive transfer of the subset of CD8alpha+ DC isolated from infected mice (iCD8+ DC) generated significant protection, demonstrated by less mycobacterial growth and pathological changes in the lung and liver tissues in iCD8+ DC recipients than sham-treated control mice. The adoptive transfer of the CD8alpha(-)DC from the infected mice (iCD8(-) DC) not only failed to reduce bacterial growth, but enhanced inflammation characterized by diffuse heavy cellular infiltration. Notably, iCD8(-) DC produced significantly higher levels of IL-10 than iCD8+ DC and promoted more Th2 cytokine responses in in vitro DC-T cell co-culture and in vivo adoptive transfer experiments.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that in vivo BCG-primed CD8+ DC is the dominant DC subset in inducing protective immunity especially for reducing pathological reactions in infected tissues. The finding has implications for the rational improvement of the prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for controlling tuberculosis infection and related diseases.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/cd8-dc-not-cd8dc-isolated-bcginfected-mice-reduces-pathological-reactions-induced-mycobacterial-chal", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/863162"], "description"=>"<p><b>A:</b> The recipient mice (C57BL/6, n = 4/group) of i.v. adoptive transferred iCD8<sup>+</sup> DC or iCD8<sup>-</sup> DC subsets and PBS treated control mice were challenged i.v. with BCG and sacrificed at day 21 post challenge as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. A, splenocytes were cultured at the concentration of 7.5×10<sup>6</sup> cells/well using HK-BCG as stimulator. Culture supernatants were harvested at 72 h and the cytokines were measured by ELISA. B&C, lungs and livers were homogenized in 10 ml cold protein-free D-PBS and centrifuged. The cytokines levels in the lung (B) and liver (C) were measured by ELISA. Data are presented as mean±SD of each group. One representative experiment of three independent experiments is shown. *p<0.05; **, p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dc", "subsets", "adoptive", "th1-related", "cytokine", "mice"], "article_id"=>533613, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_different_DC_subsets_adoptive_transfer_on_Th1_related_cytokine_production_by_recipient_mice_following_challenge_infection_/533613", "title"=>"Effects of different DC subsets adoptive transfer on Th1-related cytokine production by recipient mice following challenge infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:40:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/863052"], "description"=>"<p>The mice were treated as described in the legend to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#pone-0009281-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a> and the levels of IL-6, MIP-1α and TNF-α proteins in the homogenates of lung and liver tissues were measure by ELISA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "tissues", "mice", "treated", "dc", "subsets"], "article_id"=>533502, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pro_inflammatory_cytokine_chemokine_levels_in_local_tissues_in_mice_treated_with_different_DC_subsets_following_challenge_infection_/533502", "title"=>"Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels in local tissues in mice treated with different DC subsets following challenge infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:39:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/863344"], "description"=>"<p>A real-time RT-PCR using the green fluorescent dye SYBR Green I was applied to determine the relative concentration of BCG mRNA in iCD8<sup>+</sup>DC and iCD8<sup>−</sup>DC. The BCG mRNA in different DC subsets was amplified as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. The BCG mRNA level was normalized to GAPDH mRNA in different DC subsets demonstrated as <i>ΔCt</i>. <i>ΔCt</i> = <i>Ct</i> (BCG)–<i>Ct</i> (GAPDH), the threshold cycle of a BCG and the threshold cycle of the corresponding GAPDH in the same sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subsets", "bcg-infected", "mice", "bcg"], "article_id"=>533795, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DC_subsets_from_BCG_infected_mice_show_similar_BCG_load_/533795", "title"=>"DC subsets from BCG-infected mice show similar BCG load.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:41:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/862428"], "description"=>"<p>Mice (C57BL/6, n = 4/group) were infected i.v. with 5×10<sup>5</sup> CFU of BCG and sacrificed at 21 days after immunization. Total DCs from infected and naïve mice were purified using the MACS CD11c<sup>+</sup> isolation column. Purified DCs were co-stained with APC-conjugated anti-CD11c, PE-Cy7-conjugated anti-CD8 and FITC-conjugated Ab specific for one of the surface markers (CD80, CD86, CD40 or MHCII). The surface marker expression (solid lines) or matched Ab isotype control (shaded histogram) are shown respectively. All histogram were based on 10,000 cells satisfying a gate set of forward vs side scatter light histogram. A, purified DCs were gated on CD11c positive cells showing CD8<sup>+</sup> DC population in infected (iDC) and naïve (nDC) mice. B, purified DC were gated on either CD11c<sup>+</sup> CD8<sup>+</sup> DC (CD8<sup>+</sup>DC) or CD11c<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>−</sup> DC (CD8<sup>−</sup> DC) and the surface molecules on the DC subsets were shown. The percentages of positive cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) for the molecules were shown at the top and bottom lines respectively at the right upper corner of each histogram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["immunization", "induced", "dc", "higher", "levels", "co-stimulatory", "molecules", "compared"], "article_id"=>532876, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BCG_immunization_induced_the_expansion_of_CD8_DC_which_expressed_higher_levels_of_co_stimulatory_molecules_compared_with_CD8_DC_/532876", "title"=>"BCG immunization induced the expansion of CD8<sup>+</sup> DC which expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules compared with CD8<sup>-</sup> DC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:36:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/862579"], "description"=>"<p>DC subsets were isolated from spleens of BCG infected (i.v.) mice at day 21 post-immunization as described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. A, purified DC subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry for purity. The 5×10<sup>5</sup> sorted cells were co-stained with APC-conjugated anti-CD11c and PE-conjugated anti-CD8. The purities of the sorted iCD8<sup>+</sup> DC (left) and iCD8<sup>−</sup>DC (right) are indicated at the right upper corner and right lower corner respectively. B, freshly isolated iCD8<sup>+</sup> DC and iCD8<sup>−</sup> DC subsets were cultured. The culture supernatants were harvested at 72 h and tested for IL-10 and IL-12p70 by ELISA. Data are shown as mean±SD of each group. One representative experiment of three independent experiments with similar results is shown.*p<0.05, **p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "cytokine", "dc"], "article_id"=>533033, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_levels_of_cytokine_production_by_DC_subsets_/533033", "title"=>"Different levels of cytokine production by DC subsets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:37:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/862889"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were treated/challenged as described in the legend to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#pone-0009281-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a> and analyzed for histopathological changes in lung and liver at day 21 post challenge infection by H&E staining. Low magnification(x20) and high magnification (x100) were shown respectively. Green arrows indicate typical epithelioid cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["milder", "pathological", "changes", "recipients", "intravenous"], "article_id"=>533347, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significantly_milder_pathological_changes_in_recipients_of_iCD8_DC_following_intravenous_challenge_infection_/533347", "title"=>"Significantly milder pathological changes in recipients of iCD8<sup> +</sup>DC following intravenous challenge infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:38:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/862746"], "description"=>"<p>DC subsets were sorted from BCG-infected (i.v.) mice or naïve mice and adoptively transferred to syngeneic recipients (C57BL/6, n = 4/group) by i.v. (A&B, 5×10<sup>5</sup> DC/mouse) or i.n. routes (C, 2×10<sup>5</sup> DC/mouse). Mice were challenged with BCG through i.v. (A&B) or i.n. (C) routes, respectively, as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. All mice were sacrificed at day 21 post challenge infection. Homogenized lung or liver tissues were measured for BCG CFU. The CFUs of BCG were converted to logarithmic values and presented as mean±SD of each group. One representative experiment of three independent experiments is shown. * p<0.05;**, p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reduced", "bacterial", "growths", "recipients"], "article_id"=>533204, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adoptive_transfer_of_iCD8_DC_but_not_iCD8_8722_DC_reduced_bacterial_growths_in_recipients_following_either_i_v_or_i_n_challenge_infection_/533204", "title"=>"Adoptive transfer of iCD8<sup>+</sup>DC, but not iCD8<sup>−</sup> DC, reduced bacterial growths in recipients following either i.v. or i.n. challenge infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:38:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/863248"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were adoptively transferred i.n. with iCD8<sup>+</sup>DC or iCD8<sup>−</sup>DC subsets followed by the challenge with BCG through i.n route as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Draining lymph nodes was isolated aseptically and single cell suspension was prepared in cold staining buffer. Cells were co-stained with FITC-anti CD3ε, PE-anti CD4, PerCP-anti CD8 Abs and stained for intracellular IFN-γ using allophycocyanin -conjugated anti-IFNγ Ab as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Cells were gated on CD3ε<sup>+</sup>T cells, CD3ε<sup>+</sup>CD4<sup>+</sup>T cell and CD3ε<sup>+</sup>CD8<sup>+</sup>T cell respectively and the percentage of positive cells for IFN-γ is indicated in upper right corner (A). Pooled data in each group are shown as mean±SD (B). One representative experiment of two independent experiments is shown. *p<0.05; **, p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adoptive", "enhanced", "ifn-"], "article_id"=>533710, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intranasal_adoptive_transfer_of_iCD8_DC_but_not_iCD8_8722_DC_enhanced_IFN_947_production_by_T_cell_/533710", "title"=>"Intranasal adoptive transfer of iCD8<sup>+</sup>DC, but not iCD8<sup>−</sup>DC, enhanced IFN- γ production by T cell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:40:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/862671"], "description"=>"<p>BCG-specific CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells (5×10<sup>5</sup>) cell from BCG-infected mice were co-cultured with iCD8<sup>+</sup> DC or iCD8<sup>−</sup> DC (5×10<sup>4</sup> cells/well) in the presence of HK-BCG. Culture supernatants were collected at 72 h. IFN-γ and IL-4 were measured by ELISA. The experiment was repeated twice showing similar results. *p<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dc", "subsets", "patterns", "bcg-driven", "cytokine"], "article_id"=>533124, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Xiaoling Gao", "Shuhe Wang", "Yijun Fan", "Hong Bai", "Jie Yang", "Xi Yang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009281.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_iCD8_DC_and_iCD8_8722_DC_subsets_generate_different_patterns_of_BCG_driven_T_cell_cytokine_production_/533124", "title"=>"iCD8<sup>+</sup> DC and iCD8<sup>−</sup> DC subsets generate different patterns of BCG-driven T cell cytokine production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:37:42"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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