Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/861312"], "description"=>"<p>industrial = industrial trans fatty acid mixture; ruminant =  natural <i>trans</i> fatty acids from milk fat;CLA =  conjugated linoleic acid; CLA 50:50 = 50:50 mixture of c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA; CLA 80:20 = 80:20 mixture of c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA.</p><p>*patients with type 2 diabetes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trials", "assessing", "ldl", "hdl", "ruminant", "trans", "fatty", "acids", "unsaturated"], "article_id"=>531751, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ingeborg A. Brouwer", "Anne J. Wanders", "Martijn B. Katan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Randomized_trials_assessing_the_effect_on_the_ratio_of_LDL_to_HDL_cholesterol_of_industrial_or_ruminant_trans_fatty_acids_or_CLA_relative_to_cis_unsaturated_fatty_acids_/531751", "title"=>"Randomized trials assessing the effect on the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol of industrial or ruminant trans fatty acids or CLA, relative to <i>cis</i> unsaturated fatty acids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:30:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/861124"], "description"=>"<p>Results of randomized studies of the effects of diets high in industrial <i>trans</i> fatty acids (---○○○○○ ---) or ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids (····▴····) or CLA (▪▪▪•▪▪▪) compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on LDL cholesterol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["randomized", "studies", "diets", "fatty", "acids", "ruminant", "cla", "compared", "ldl"], "article_id"=>531560, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ingeborg A. Brouwer", "Anne J. Wanders", "Martijn B. Katan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_randomized_studies_of_the_effects_of_diets_high_in_industrial_trans_fatty_acids____or_ruminant_trans_fatty_acids___or_CLA____compared_with_cis_unsaturated_fatty_acids_on_LDL_cholesterol_/531560", "title"=>"Results of randomized studies of the effects of diets high in industrial <i>trans</i> fatty acids (---○○○○○ ---) or ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids (····▴····) or CLA (▪▪▪•▪▪▪) compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on LDL cholesterol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:29:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/861221"], "description"=>"<p>Results of randomized studies of the effects of diets high in industrial <i>trans</i> fatty acids (---○○○○○ ---) or ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids (····▴····) or CLA (▪▪▪•▪▪▪) compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on HDL cholesterol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["randomized", "studies", "diets", "fatty", "acids", "ruminant", "cla", "compared", "hdl"], "article_id"=>531659, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ingeborg A. Brouwer", "Anne J. Wanders", "Martijn B. Katan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_randomized_studies_of_the_effects_of_diets_high_in_industrial_trans_fatty_acids____or_ruminant_trans_fatty_acids___or_CLA____compared_with_cis_unsaturated_fatty_acids_on_HDL_cholesterol_/531659", "title"=>"Results of randomized studies of the effects of diets high in industrial <i>trans</i> fatty acids (---○○○○○ ---) or ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids (····▴····) or CLA (▪▪▪•▪▪▪) compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on HDL cholesterol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:29:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860736"], "description"=>"<p>Elaidic acid (9-<i>trans</i>-C18:1) is a typical industrial trans fatty acid, produced by partial hydrogenation of vegetable oil. Vaccenic acid (11-<i>trans</i>-C18:1) is the predominant trans fatty acid in milk and meat from ruminant animals, although small amounts are also found in industrially hydrogenated fats. The 9,11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid or CLA (9-cis, 11-<i>trans</i>-C18:2) is found almost exclusively in ruminant fat; industrial production of CLA yields a mixture of 9,11 and 10,12 isomers. Oleic acid (9-cis -C18:1) is the predominant cis-unsaturated fatty acid in the diet. The location of the trans bond in trans isomers of alpha-linolenic acid is not known precisely; for this figure it has been assigned arbitrarily to the 6 location. The same holds for the trans bonds in the trans isomers of C20:1, C20:2, C22:1 and C22:2 that arise from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during partial hydrogenation of fish oil.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fatty"], "article_id"=>531192, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ingeborg A. Brouwer", "Anne J. Wanders", "Martijn B. Katan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structures_of_cis_and_trans_fatty_acids_/531192", "title"=>"Structures of <i>cis</i>- and <i>trans</i> fatty acids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:27:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/861016"], "description"=>"<p>a: Results of all studies on the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol. Results of studies using saturated fatty acids as comparison group <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Almendingen1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Muller1\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Dyerberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-French1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Sundram1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Tholstrup1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-deRoos1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Aro2\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Moloney1\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Sluijs1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a> and of the Transfact study<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Chardigny1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>, which compared two sources of trans fatty acids were recalculated to effects relative to isocaloric amounts of <i>cis</i> mono-unsaturated fatty acids according to Mensink et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Mensink1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>. To maintain uniformity, we calculated the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol from mean LDL and HDL levels, even where ratios had been reported. Numbers indicate reference numbers. Point no. 63 was not included in estimating the regression line because we considered it an outlier. Regression lines were forced through the origin because a zero change in diet should produce a zero change in blood lipids. The black solid line indicates the best-fit regression for industrial <i>trans</i> fatty acids (y = 0.055x), the dashed line for ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids (y = 0.038x) and the grey line for CLA (y = 0.045x). The slopes of the regression lines were not significantly different. b: Results of randomized studies of the effects of diets high in ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol. Results of one study using saturated fatty acids as comparison group <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Tholstrup1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a> and of the Transfact study, which compared two sources of trans fatty acids <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Chardigny1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>, were recalculated to effects relative to isocaloric amounts of <i>cis</i> mono-unsaturated fatty acids according to Mensink et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Mensink1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>. To maintain uniformity, we calculated the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol from mean LDL and HDL levels, even where ratios had been reported. Numbers indicate reference numbers. c: Results of randomized studies of the effects of CLA compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol. To maintain uniformity, we calculated the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol from mean LDL and HDL levels, even where ratios had been reported. Numbers indicate reference numbers. Results of two studies using placebo supplements with a high saturated fat content <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Moloney1\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Sluijs1\" target=\"_blank\">[61]</a>were recalculated to effects relative to isocaloric amounts of <i>cis</i> mono-unsaturated fatty acids according to Mensink et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434#pone.0009434-Mensink1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["randomized", "studies", "diets", "fatty", "acids", "ruminant", "cla", "compared", "ldl-", "tot"], "article_id"=>531443, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Medicine", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Ingeborg A. Brouwer", "Anne J. Wanders", "Martijn B. Katan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009434.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_randomized_studies_of_the_effects_of_diets_high_in_industrial_trans_fatty_acids____or_ruminant_trans_fatty_acids___or_CLA____compared_with_cis_unsaturated_fatty_acids_on_the_ratio_of_LDL_tot_HDL_cholesterol_/531443", "title"=>"Results of randomized studies of the effects of diets high in industrial <i>trans</i> fatty acids (---○○○○○ ---) or ruminant <i>trans</i> fatty acids (····▴····) or CLA (▪▪▪•▪▪▪) compared with <i>cis</i>-unsaturated fatty acids on the ratio of LDL- tot HDL-cholesterol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:28:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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