Open Space Loss and Land Inequality in United States' Cities, 1990–2000
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{"title"=>"Open space loss and land inequality in United States' cities, 1990-2000", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert I.", "last_name"=>"McDonald", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401841070"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard T.T.", "last_name"=>"Forman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101778414"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Kareiva", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005653835"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20209082", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009509", "sgr"=>"77949865225", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77949865225", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"358506553"}, "id"=>"5195e01d-d497-3f3b-af1d-bd0af0460e16", "abstract"=>"Urban growth reduces open space in and around cities, impacting biodiversity and ecosystem services. Using land-cover and population data, we examined land consumption and open space loss between 1990 and 2000 for all 274 metropolitan areas in the contiguous United States. Nationally, 1.4 million ha of open space was lost, and the amount lost in a given city was correlated with population growth (r(272) = 0.85, P<0.001). In 2000, cities varied in per capita land consumption by an order of magnitude, from 459 m(2)/person in New York to 5393 m(2)/person in Grand Forks, ND. The per capita land consumption (m(2)/person) of most cities decreased on average over the decade from 1,564 to 1,454 m(2)/person, but there was substantial regional variation and some cities even increased. Cities with greater conservation funding or more reform-minded zoning tended to decrease in per capita land consumption more than other cities. The majority of developed area in cities is in low-density neighborhoods housing a small proportion of urban residents, with Gini coefficients that quantify this developed land inequality averaging 0.63. Our results suggest conservation funding and reform-minded zoning decrease per capita open space loss.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/open-space-loss-land-inequality-united-states-cities-19902000", "reader_count"=>88, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>32, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>32}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>6}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Puerto Rico"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860678"], "description"=>"<p>A.) Population growth for each metropolitan area (MSA). B.) Land-cover in 1990. C.) Open space loss within each MSA. The size of the bubble indicates the amount of open space lost, and the color indicates the dominant type of land-cover lost. Cities are only marked when greater than 5000 ha was lost in at least one land-cover category. D.) The change in per-capita land consumption from 1990 to 2000. Cities with negative numbers used less land per-capita in 2000 than in 1990, while cities with positive numbers used more land per-capita.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology"], "article_id"=>531136, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert I. McDonald", "Richard T. T. Forman", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009509.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_population_and_land_cover_1990_8211_2000_/531136", "title"=>"Change in population and land-cover, 1990–2000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:26:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860937"], "description"=>"<p>Conservation funding is the sum of all approved municipal, special district, and county ballot initiatives from 1990–2000, in nominal $, divided by the MSA population in 1990. Changes in per capita land consumption are measured as the difference between 1990 and 2000 per capita consumption, in developed area per person. Negative numbers indicate per capita land consumption declined over the decade. Statistically different groups are shown with different superscripts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["capita"], "article_id"=>531397, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert I. McDonald", "Richard T. T. Forman", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009509.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conservation_funding_and_change_in_per_capita_land_consumption_/531397", "title"=>"Conservation funding and change in per capita land consumption.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:28:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860851"], "description"=>"<p>A.) The proportion of households in neighborhoods that have a density greater than 1250 houses/km<sup>2</sup>. B.) Land inequality in U.S. cities, as measured by the Gini coefficient, which ranges from 0–1. Higher values indicate greater land inequality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cities"], "article_id"=>531319, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert I. McDonald", "Richard T. T. Forman", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009509.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fine_scale_pattern_of_household_density_in_U_S_cities_in_2000_/531319", "title"=>"Fine-scale pattern of household density in U.S. cities in 2000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:27:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860764"], "description"=>"<p>A.) The proportion of households in neighborhoods of different density categories in 1990 in two cities, Detroit, MI and Portland, OR. Changes in the proportion in each category over the decade are shown by the length of the arrows. For clarity, arrows are only drawn when there is a change of at least 0.5%. For instance, in Detroit almost a third of households are in neighborhoods from 1250–2500 homes/km<sup>2</sup>, but this proportion is decreasing over time. B.) The cumulative proportion of development versus the cumulative proportion of homes in 1990 (solid line) and 2000 (dashed line). For example, in Detroit the 80% of homes in the highest density neighborhoods consume only 35% of total developed area. For reference, the line of perfect equality is shown (dashed). If all households were in neighborhoods of equal density, the empirical curve would fall along this line of perfect equality. The Gini coefficient is defined as area X divided by the total area under the line of perfect equality (X+Y).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/conservation and restoration ecology", "ecology/global change ecology", "ecology/spatial and landscape ecology"], "article_id"=>531226, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert I. McDonald", "Richard T. T. Forman", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009509.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_household_density_1990_8211_2000_/531226", "title"=>"The distribution of household density, 1990–2000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:27:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860961"], "description"=>"<p>See text for the details of the four zoning categories used. Changes in per-capita land consumption are measured as the difference between 1990 and 2000 per capita land consumption, in developed area per person. Negative numbers indicate per-capita land consumption declined over the decade. Statistically different groups are shown with different superscripts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zoning", "per-capita"], "article_id"=>531420, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert I. McDonald", "Richard T. T. Forman", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009509.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_type_of_zoning_and_the_change_in_per_capita_land_consumption_/531420", "title"=>"The type of zoning and the change in per-capita land consumption.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:28:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860556"], "description"=>"<p>For the largest metropolitan areas, the type of zoning scheme is shown (see text for details). Inset shows land-cover data for the Los Angeles area, with areas built up in 1990 (gray), areas of new development between 1990 and 2000 (red), and open space (beige). For reference, the extent of the inset map is shown on the national map with a black box.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["areas", "examined"], "article_id"=>531013, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Robert I. McDonald", "Richard T. T. Forman", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009509.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metropolitan_areas_examined_in_this_study_/531013", "title"=>"Metropolitan areas examined in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:26:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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