Evolutionary Divergence in Brain Size between Migratory and Resident Birds
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{"title"=>"Evolutionary divergence in brain size between migratory and resident birds", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Sol", "scopus_author_id"=>"8928241600"}, {"first_name"=>"Núria", "last_name"=>"Garcia", "scopus_author_id"=>"36061577700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Iwaniuk", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004070479"}, {"first_name"=>"Katie", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55413149400"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Meade", "scopus_author_id"=>"56786628700"}, {"first_name"=>"W. Alice", "last_name"=>"Boyle", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101931189"}, {"first_name"=>"Tamás", "last_name"=>"Székely", "scopus_author_id"=>"55254243200"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009617", "sgr"=>"77949662702", "pui"=>"358498925", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77949662702", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"20224776", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"6c23f2e2-c78e-3829-a247-8c1ae811bdad", "abstract"=>"Despite important recent progress in our understanding of brain evolution, controversy remains regarding the evolutionary forces that have driven its enormous diversification in size. Here, we report that in passerine birds, migratory species tend to have brains that are substantially smaller (relative to body size) than those of resident species, confirming and generalizing previous studies. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Bayesian Markov chain methods suggest an evolutionary scenario in which some large brained tropical passerines that invaded more seasonal regions evolved migratory behavior and migration itself selected for smaller brain size. Selection for smaller brains in migratory birds may arise from the energetic and developmental costs associated with a highly mobile life cycle, a possibility that is supported by a path analysis. Nevertheless, an important fraction (over 68%) of the correlation between brain mass and migratory distance comes from a direct effect of migration on brain size, perhaps reflecting costs associated with cognitive functions that have become less necessary in migratory species. Overall, our results highlight the importance of retrospective analyses in identifying selective pressures that have shaped brain evolution, and indicate that when it comes to the brain, larger is not always better.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evolutionary-divergence-brain-size-between-migratory-resident-birds", "reader_count"=>171, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>21}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>39, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>16, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>21}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>117, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Psychology"=>16, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>16}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>117}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>8, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Poland"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/859856"], "description"=>"<p>A positive brain residual indicates that the species has a brain larger than expected by their body size whereas a negative brain residual indicates that the brain is smaller. Migration has been coded as follows: 0) no populations of species is migratory anywhere in its distribution, 1) altitudinal movements and other movements less than 100 km, 2) movements between 100 and 700 km, 3) 700–1500 km, and 4)>1500 km.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["residual", "migratory", "passerine"], "article_id"=>530311, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel Sol", "Núria Garcia", "Andrew Iwaniuk", "Katie Davis", "Andrew Meade", "W. Alice Boyle", "Tamás Székely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_brain_residual_size_and_migratory_distance_in_passerine_birds_/530311", "title"=>"Relationship between brain residual size and migratory distance in passerine birds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-10 00:05:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860209"], "description"=>"<p>The model is based on 74 species for which information on all variables was available. The coefficients are the slopes (continuous variables) or mean differences (binary variables) of the relationship between log-brain mass (response variable) and all the variables (predictors) estimated with the method of the phylogenetic generalized least squares and the phylogeny branch lengths set to one <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617#pone.0009617-Garland1\" target=\"_blank\">[57]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migratory", "extrinsic", "intrinsic", "factors", "susceptible", "incorporated"], "article_id"=>530659, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel Sol", "Núria Garcia", "Andrew Iwaniuk", "Katie Davis", "Andrew Meade", "W. Alice Boyle", "Tamás Székely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_mass_as_a_function_of_migratory_distance_with_extrinsic_and_intrinsic_factors_susceptible_to_influence_the_relationship_incorporated_as_covariates_/530659", "title"=>"Brain mass as a function of migratory distance, with extrinsic and intrinsic factors susceptible to influence the relationship incorporated as covariates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-10 00:10:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/859977"], "description"=>"<p>(A) general model with parameter notations and (B) model with parameters estimated based on 377 non-tropical breeding species. Each <i>q<sub>i</sub></i> represents the likelihood and associated standard deviation of a transition, estimated with Bayesian approaches based on a phylogeny with branch length set to 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["migratory"], "article_id"=>530434, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel Sol", "Núria Garcia", "Andrew Iwaniuk", "Katie Davis", "Andrew Meade", "W. Alice Boyle", "Tamás Székely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Directional_evolution_of_migratory_behavior_and_brain_size_in_passerines_/530434", "title"=>"Directional evolution of migratory behavior and brain size in passerines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-10 00:07:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426985", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/427036"], "description"=>"<div><p>Despite important recent progress in our understanding of brain evolution, controversy remains regarding the evolutionary forces that have driven its enormous diversification in size. Here, we report that in passerine birds, migratory species tend to have brains that are substantially smaller (relative to body size) than those of resident species, confirming and generalizing previous studies. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Bayesian Markov chain methods suggest an evolutionary scenario in which some large brained tropical passerines that invaded more seasonal regions evolved migratory behavior and migration itself selected for smaller brain size. Selection for smaller brains in migratory birds may arise from the energetic and developmental costs associated with a highly mobile life cycle, a possibility that is supported by a path analysis. Nevertheless, an important fraction (over 68%) of the correlation between brain mass and migratory distance comes from a direct effect of migration on brain size, perhaps reflecting costs associated with cognitive functions that have become less necessary in migratory species. Overall, our results highlight the importance of retrospective analyses in identifying selective pressures that have shaped brain evolution, and indicate that when it comes to the brain, larger is not always better.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary", "divergence", "migratory", "birds"], "article_id"=>144285, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel Sol", "Núria Garcia", "Andrew Iwaniuk", "Katie Davis", "Andrew Meade", "W. Alice Boyle", "Tamás Székely"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evolutionary_Divergence_in_Brain_Size_between_Migratory_and_Resident_Birds/144285", "title"=>"Evolutionary Divergence in Brain Size between Migratory and Resident Birds", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-10 01:11:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/860055"], "description"=>"<p>The path coefficients and fit of the models were calculated based on the correlation matrix of raw values from all species (600 species), with means and intercepts estimated to deal with missing values <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617#pone.0009617-Arbuckle1\" target=\"_blank\">[63]</a>. Solid lines indicate the paths that are significant at P<0.05. All path coefficients that are significant are also significant when tested with the phylogenetic generalized least squares approach. Brain mass (Brain), body mass (Body) and incubation period (Incubation) were log transformed to improve normality. Although migration distance (Migration) is measured in an ordinal scale (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617#s3\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>), the residuals from the model in which this variable is used as response variable fit well to a normal distribution. The terms e1–e6 refer to the error terms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["models", "deconstructing", "indirect", "spurious", "migratory"], "article_id"=>530507, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel Sol", "Núria Garcia", "Andrew Iwaniuk", "Katie Davis", "Andrew Meade", "W. Alice Boyle", "Tamás Székely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Four_best_path_models_A_8211_D_deconstructing_direct_indirect_and_spurious_effects_in_the_relationship_between_brain_mass_and_migratory_distance_/530507", "title"=>"Four best path models (A–D) deconstructing direct, indirect and spurious effects in the relationship between brain mass and migratory distance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-10 00:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/859920"], "description"=>"<p>The six families correspond to those for which enough species were available for the analyses. Differences are expressed as mean ± SE ± SD. Residence includes migratory distances 0 and 1 (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617#s3\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>) and migration distances 2, 3 and 4. The <i>R<sup>2</sup></i> and <i>P</i> values come from a PGLS in which residual brain size was the response variable and migratory behavior the predictor.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["residual", "migratory"], "article_id"=>530378, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniel Sol", "Núria Garcia", "Andrew Iwaniuk", "Katie Davis", "Andrew Meade", "W. Alice Boyle", "Tamás Székely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009617.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_residual_brain_size_between_resident_migratory_species_within_families_/530378", "title"=>"Differences in residual brain size between resident migratory species within families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-10 00:06:18"}

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