Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions
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{"title"=>"Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jeremy", "last_name"=>"Lundholm", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701708195"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Scott", "last_name"=>"MacIvor", "scopus_author_id"=>"35776524000"}, {"first_name"=>"Zachary", "last_name"=>"MacDougall", "scopus_author_id"=>"35776568500"}, {"first_name"=>"Melissa", "last_name"=>"Ranalli", "scopus_author_id"=>"36087919900"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"358566413", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009677", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77950397395", "pmid"=>"20300196", "sgr"=>"77950397395"}, "id"=>"77e626c6-f073-3ad0-a05d-e779bef0ea5b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green roof ecosystems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/plant-species-functional-group-combinations-affect-green-roof-ecosystem-functions-12", "reader_count"=>229, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>49, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>54, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>49, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>54, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>39, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>78, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>25, "Environmental Science"=>81, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>81}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>6}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>25}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>78}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Portugal"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>3, "Korea (South)"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>2, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>11}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858503"], "description"=>"a<p>Heating degree days calculated as the number of days or fraction thereof for which temperatures were below 15°C times (15 (°C) – temperature).</p>b<p>Cooling degree days calculated as the number of days or fraction thereof for which temperatures were above 18°C times (temperature (°C) - 18).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["climatic", "averages", "regions", "been", "researched", "heating", "cooling", "days"], "article_id"=>528960, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Jeremy Lundholm", "J. Scott MacIvor", "Zachary MacDougall", "Melissa Ranalli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thirty_year_historic_climatic_averages_from_regions_where_the_effects_of_plant_selection_on_green_roof_performance_has_been_researched_except_heating_and_cooling_degree_days_which_are_averages_from_2007_2009_55_60_/528960", "title"=>"Thirty-year historic climatic averages from regions where the effects of plant selection on green roof performance has been researched (except heating and cooling degree days which are averages from 2007-2009)[55]-[60].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-12 02:29:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858429"], "description"=>"<p>Standardized regression coefficients are shown for paths indicating a significant correlation at P<0.05 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677#pone.0009677.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "correlations", "vegetation", "properties", "modular"], "article_id"=>528883, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Jeremy Lundholm", "J. Scott MacIvor", "Zachary MacDougall", "Melissa Ranalli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Path_diagram_showing_correlations_between_ecosystem_and_vegetation_properties_in_a_modular_green_roof_system_/528883", "title"=>"Path diagram showing correlations between ecosystem and vegetation properties in a modular green roof system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-12 02:28:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426801", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426810", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426821", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426845", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426855"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green roof ecosystems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["combinations", "functions"], "article_id"=>144252, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Jeremy Lundholm", "J. Scott MacIvor", "Zachary MacDougall", "Melissa Ranalli"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Plant_Species_and_Functional_Group_Combinations_Affect_Green_Roof_Ecosystem_Functions/144252", "title"=>"Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-12 01:10:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858314"], "description"=>"<p>The solid line is fitted from a regression (±95% CI) of the ecosystem property on the number of planted species (unplanted controls omitted). This is the same data as in Figure 1, without the substrate-only controls, and with number of species planted, instead of the number of functional groups on the x-axis to permit comparison in a regression framework. (A) R<sup>2</sup><sub>adj</sub> = 0.27, F<sub>1,131</sub> = 54.63, P = 1.20×10<sup>-11</sup>; (B) R<sup>2</sup><sub> adj</sub> = 0.07, F<sub>1,131</sub> = 11.58, P = 8.80×10<sup>-4</sup>; (C) R<sup>2</sup><sub> adj</sub> = 0.12, F<sub>1,131</sub> = 18.47, P = 3.33×10<sup>-5</sup>; (D) R<sup>2</sup><sub> adj</sub> = 0.23, F<sub>1,131</sub> = 41.43, P = 2.11×10<sup>-9</sup>; (E) R<sup>2</sup><sub> adj</sub> = 0.19, F<sub>1,131</sub> = 31.97, P = 9.36×10<sup>-8</sup>; (F) R<sup>2</sup><sub> adj</sub> = 0.14, F<sub>1,131</sub> = 22.45, P = 5.54×10<sup>-6</sup>; (G) R<sup>2</sup><sub> adj</sub> = 0.08, F<sub>1,129</sub> = 11.75, P = 8.18×10<sup>-4</sup>. The horizontal dashed line represents the value of the best performing monoculture replicate. For (A) surface temperature, and (G) temporal variability in aboveground biomass, lower values indicate improved performance. In treatments with three life-form groups, those modules containing the tall forb group are in green, whereas combinations not including tall forbs are in black. Monoculture treatments are grouped by life-form such that all three species within a life-form group have the same colour.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dependence", "services", "properties", "modules", "planted"], "article_id"=>528769, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Jeremy Lundholm", "J. Scott MacIvor", "Zachary MacDougall", "Melissa Ranalli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_dependence_of_ecosystem_services_and_properties_in_individual_roof_modules_on_planted_species_richness_/528769", "title"=>"The dependence of ecosystem services and properties in individual roof modules on planted species richness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-12 02:26:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858541"], "description"=>"1<p>The best ten treatments for each performance measure are in bold (for aboveground biomass variability and surface temperature, optimal functioning is indicated by the lowest values).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["properties", "modules", "planted", "monocultures", "life-form"], "article_id"=>528995, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Jeremy Lundholm", "J. Scott MacIvor", "Zachary MacDougall", "Melissa Ranalli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009677.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_community_and_ecosystem_properties_in_green_roof_modules_planted_with_no_plants_monocultures_or_one_three_or_five_life_form_groups_/528995", "title"=>"Summary of community and ecosystem properties in green roof modules planted with no plants, monocultures or one, three or five life-form groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-12 02:29:55"}

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