Putting Culture Under the ‘Spotlight’ Reveals Universal Information Use for Face Recognition
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{"title"=>"Putting culture under the 'Spotlight' reveals universal information use for face recognition", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roberto", "last_name"=>"Caldara", "scopus_author_id"=>"8968458000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xinyue", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"8408715900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sébastien", "last_name"=>"Miellet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507548784"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77954503247", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009708", "pmid"=>"20305776", "pui"=>"368277923", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77954503247"}, "id"=>"709f8946-4807-3c88-b80e-e9cec49ebea0", "abstract"=>"Background: Eye movement strategies employed by humans to identify conspecifics are not universal. Westerners predominantly fixate the eyes during face recognition, whereas Easterners more the nose region, yet recognition accuracy is comparable. However, natural fixations do not unequivocally represent information extraction. So the question of whether humans universally use identical facial information to recognize faces remains unresolved. Methodology/Principal Findings: We monitored eye movements during face recognition of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers with a novel technique in face recognition that parametrically restricts information outside central vision. We used Spotlights with Gaussian apertures of 2, 5 or 8 dynamically centered on observers' fixations. Strikingly, in constrained Spotlight conditions (2 and 5) observers of both cultures actively fixated the same facial information: the eyes and mouth. When information from both eyes and mouth was simultaneously available when fixating the nose (8), as expected EA observers shifted their fixations towards this region. Conclusions/Significance: Social experience and cultural factors shape the strategies used to extract information from faces, but these results suggest that external forces do not modulate information use. Human beings rely on identical facial information to recognize conspecifics, a universal law that might be dictated by the evolutionary constraints of nature and not nurture.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/putting-culture-under-spotlight-reveals-universal-information-face-recognition", "reader_count"=>120, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>82, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>4, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>82}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Korea (South)"=>1, "Cyprus"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426948", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426976"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Eye movement strategies employed by humans to identify conspecifics are not universal. Westerners predominantly fixate the eyes during face recognition, whereas Easterners more the nose region, yet recognition accuracy is comparable. However, natural fixations do not unequivocally represent information extraction. So the question of whether humans universally use identical facial information to recognize faces remains unresolved.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We monitored eye movements during face recognition of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers with a novel technique in face recognition that parametrically restricts information outside central vision. We used <em>‘Spotlights’</em> with Gaussian apertures of 2°, 5° or 8° dynamically centered on observers' fixations. Strikingly, in constrained <em>Spotlight</em> conditions (2° and 5°) observers of both cultures <em>actively</em> fixated the same facial information: the eyes and mouth. When information from both eyes and mouth was simultaneously available when fixating the nose (8°), as expected EA observers shifted their fixations towards this region.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Social experience and cultural factors shape the <em>strategies</em> used to extract information from faces, but these results suggest that external forces do not modulate <em>information</em> use. Human beings rely on identical facial information to recognize conspecifics, a universal law that might be dictated by the evolutionary constraints of nature and not nurture.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["putting", "reveals"], "article_id"=>144274, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Putting_Culture_Under_the_Spotlight_Reveals_Universal_Information_Use_for_Face_Recognition/144274", "title"=>"Putting Culture Under the <em>‘Spotlight’</em> Reveals Universal Information Use for Face Recognition", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 01:11:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857686"], "description"=>"<p>Note that information from both eyes and the mouth is available from the nose region only in the 8° condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["covered", "gaussian", "apertures", "centered"], "article_id"=>528144, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Area_covered_by_Spotlights_with_Gaussian_apertures_of_2_5_and_8_centered_respectively_on_the_left_eye_and_the_nose_region_/528144", "title"=>"Area covered by <i>Spotlights</i> with Gaussian apertures of 2°, 5° and 8°, centered respectively on the left eye and the nose region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:15:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857753"], "description"=>"<p>WC  =  Western Caucasian; EA  =  East Asian. Note the relationship for those variables, the increase of accuracy with larger <i>Spotlight</i> apertures was also accompanied by faster response times (WC: plain lines; EA: dashed lines).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "times"], "article_id"=>528212, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentages_of_correct_responses_left_y_axis_and_response_times_right_y_axis_for_the_different_Spotlight_conditions_/528212", "title"=>"Percentages of correct responses (left <i>y</i> axis) and response times (right <i>y</i> axis) for the different <i>Spotlight</i> conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:16:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857811"], "description"=>"<p>Number of average fixations employed by Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers to adapt to face learning and recognition across the different <i>Spotlight</i> apertures sizes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fixations", "employed", "caucasian", "asian", "observers", "apertures"], "article_id"=>528270, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_average_fixations_employed_by_Western_Caucasian_WC_and_East_Asian_EA_observers_to_adapt_to_face_learning_and_recognition_across_the_different_Spotlight_apertures_sizes_/528270", "title"=>"Number of average fixations employed by Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers to adapt to face learning and recognition across the different <i>Spotlight</i> apertures sizes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:17:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857899"], "description"=>"<p>Fixation biases for WC (red) and EA (blue) observers are highlighted by subtracting WC and the EA Z-scored group fixation maps. Areas fixated above chance are delimited by white borders. Note the shift of eye movement fixations in the EA observers in the 8° <i>Spotlight</i> condition for both tasks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "caucasian", "asian", "observers", "wc", "ea"], "article_id"=>528357, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fixation_maps_of_Western_Caucasian_WC_and_East_Asian_EA_observers_for_each_Spotlight_condition_during_WC_and_EA_face_learning_left_and_recognition_right_/528357", "title"=>"Fixation maps of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers for each <i>Spotlight</i> condition during WC and EA face learning (<i>left</i>) and recognition (<i>right</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:19:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857976"], "description"=>"<p><i>Top left: differential</i> fixation maps computed by subtracting the fixation map for Western Caucasian (WC) observers obtained in the 2°<i>Spotlight</i> condition with the 8° <i>Spotlight</i>. <i>Bottom left:</i> differential fixation maps computed by subtracting the fixation map for Western Caucasian (WC) observers obtained in the 5°<i>Spotlight</i> condition with the 8° <i>Spotlight</i>. <i>Top and Bottom right:</i> report the same comparisons, in their respective conditions, for the East Asian (EA) observers. Note that significant differences were only observed for East Asian observers, which deployed a central fixation bias only in the 8°<i>Spotlight</i> condition and focused on the eye region in the 2° and 5° constrained <i>Spotlight</i> conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biases"], "article_id"=>528443, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fixation_biases_specific_to_the_8_Spotlight_/528443", "title"=>"Fixation biases specific to the 8° <i>Spotlight</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:20:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858048"], "description"=>"<p>Areas fixated above chance are delimited by white borders. Observers significantly fixated more on the eye region than the rest of the face regardless their accuracy (about 28 trials per condition); on those maps the darker blue represents 0. <i>Right</i>: Note the absence of significant differences in the fixation strategies as a function of correct and incorrect trials in both groups of observers. <i>Bottom</i>: differential fixation biases for Western Caucasian (WC - red) and East Asian (EA - blue) observers are highlighted by subtracting the WC and the EA Z-scored group fixation maps for incorrect and correct trials respectively. No significant cultural differences were found for this comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maps", "caucasian", "asian", "observers", "incorrect"], "article_id"=>528509, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fixation_maps_of_Western_Caucasian_WC_and_East_Asian_EA_observers_for_the_2_Spotlight_condition_during_face_recognition_for_incorrect_and_correct_trials_/528509", "title"=>"Fixation maps of Western Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) observers for the 2° <i>Spotlight</i> condition during face recognition for incorrect and correct trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:21:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858142"], "description"=>"<p>WC  =  Western Caucasian; EA  =  East Asian. Error bars report standard errors of the mean. Significant differences between observers from different cultures for each of the facial features are reported at the bottom of the bars (***  = P<.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["z-score", "regions"], "article_id"=>528612, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_Z_score_left_y_axis_and_Cohen_s_d_effect_size_values_right_y_axis_for_the_eye_and_nose_regions_during_face_learning_and_recognition_/528612", "title"=>"Average Z-score (left <i>y</i> axis) and <i>Cohen's d</i> effect size values (right <i>y</i> axis) for the eye and nose regions during face learning and recognition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:23:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858202"], "description"=>"<p><i>Top</i>: the eye region; <i>bottom</i>: the nose region. Note that since the response times varied across trials within- and between-observers, the time was normalized for this condition only. Observers from different culture showed a larger number of fixations towards their respective preferred regions throughout the entire time course. Significant differences at each time point across the two groups of observers are reported by an *. Shaded areas report the 95% confidence interval (Western Caucasian – red; East Asian – blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fixations", "facial", "regions"], "article_id"=>528657, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_of_the_frequency_of_fixations_for_the_facial_regions_showing_a_cultural_bias_during_face_learning_left_and_recognition_right_/528657", "title"=>"Time course of the frequency of fixations for the facial regions showing a cultural bias during face learning (left) and recognition (right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:24:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858324"], "description"=>"<p>Face areas fixated with above chance frequency are delimited by white borders. As revealed by the lack of significant differences in the <i>differential</i> fixation maps (3<sup>rd</sup> and 6<sup>th</sup> row), fixation strategies of both cultural groups were consistent as a function of the race of the faces within their respective <i>Spotlight</i> conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["asian", "fixation", "maps"], "article_id"=>528783, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Caucasian_WC_and_East_Asian_EA_group_fixation_maps_for_learning_and_recognition_trials_/528783", "title"=>"Caucasian (WC) and East Asian (EA) group fixation maps for learning and recognition trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:26:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858459"], "description"=>"<p><i>Right</i>: Pixel information biases for WC (red) and EA (blue) faces. Note the absence of any significant differences in the pixel space across faces for faces from different culture (Z<i><sub>crit</sub></i>>|4.25|, P<.05), indicating the absence of evident diagnostic information for observers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deviation", "pixel", "caucasian", "asian", "faces"], "article_id"=>528917, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Roberto Caldara", "Xinyue Zhou", "Sébastien Miellet"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standard_deviation_from_the_mean_of_the_pixel_values_gray_level_1_256_of_the_Western_Caucasian_WC_left_and_East_Asian_EA_middle_faces_used_in_the_experiment_/528917", "title"=>"Standard deviation from the mean of the pixel values (gray level: 1-256) of the Western Caucasian (WC - <i>left</i>) and East Asian (EA - <i>middle</i>) faces used in the experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-18 02:28:37"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[275, 532, 682, 800, 904, 1008, 1103, 1194, 1265, 1340, 1412, 1479, 1546, 1610, 1672, 1736, 1793, 1861, 1922, 1978, 2032, 2094, 2155, 2220, 2279, 2333, 2395, 2481, 2543, 2601, 2669, 2722, 2767, 2826, 2882, 2942, 3006, 3054, 3110, 3176, 3253, 3313, 3367, 3422, 3472, 3539, 3593, 3655, 3703]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[290, 563, 717, 832, 936, 1036, 1112, 1185, 1252, 1329, 1409, 1471, 1534, 1591, 1646, 1708, 1776, 1840, 1903, 1953, 2006, 2073, 2139, 2193, 2247, 2308, 2370, 2440, 2489, 2546, 2600, 2659, 2705, 2764, 2843, 2917, 2963, 3003, 3062, 3126, 3188, 3253, 3294, 3346, 3402, 3467, 3538, 3593, 3642]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[270, 536, 692, 812, 932, 1037, 1128, 1210, 1293, 1367, 1439, 1514, 1580, 1646, 1711, 1766, 1834, 1902, 1969, 2036, 2106, 2165, 2221, 2285, 2337, 2403, 2459, 2517, 2586, 2644, 2716, 2782, 2842, 2895, 2958, 3017]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[365, 646, 813, 929, 1044, 1126, 1205, 1294, 1377, 1449, 1517, 1586, 1660, 1746, 1812, 1886, 1945, 2022, 2094, 2179, 2255, 2320, 2417, 2490, 2571, 2650, 2693, 2787, 2850, 2927, 2994, 3072, 3138, 3216, 3261, 3337, 3393, 3448, 3512, 3606, 3667, 3746, 3811, 3865, 3928, 3988, 4031, 4086]}]}
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