High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health
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{"title"=>"High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christopher A.", "last_name"=>"Mullin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003525905"}, {"first_name"=>"Maryann", "last_name"=>"Frazier", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004786032"}, {"first_name"=>"James L.", "last_name"=>"Frazier", "scopus_author_id"=>"35894977400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sara", "last_name"=>"Ashcraft", "scopus_author_id"=>"24436782300"}, {"first_name"=>"Roger", "last_name"=>"Simonds", "scopus_author_id"=>"37002006000"}, {"first_name"=>"Dennis", "last_name"=>"vanEngelsdorp", "scopus_author_id"=>"16311263600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeffery S.", "last_name"=>"Pettis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004714365"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79952118619", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009754", "pui"=>"368261795", "pmid"=>"20333298", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952118619", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"e47df3e4-5cda-32f4-a6f6-52c73952dfd7", "abstract"=>"The 98 pesticides and metabolites detected in mixtures up to 214 ppm in bee pollen alone represents a remarkably high level for toxicants in the brood and adult food of this primary pollinator. This represents over half of the maximum individual pesticide incidences ever reported for apiaries. While exposure to many of these neurotoxicants elicits acute and sublethal reductions in honey bee fitness, the effects of these materials in combinations and their direct association with CCD or declining bee health remains to be determined.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-levels-miticides-agrochemicals-north-american-apiaries-implications-honey-bee-health", "reader_count"=>477, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>22, "Librarian"=>8, "Researcher"=>87, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>93, "Student > Postgraduate"=>20, "Student > Master"=>78, "Other"=>26, "Student > Bachelor"=>69, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>27}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>22, "Librarian"=>8, "Researcher"=>87, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>93, "Student > Postgraduate"=>20, "Student > Master"=>78, "Other"=>26, "Student > Bachelor"=>69, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>27}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>19, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>308, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>8, "Chemistry"=>25, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>60, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>18, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Design"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>19}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>60}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>25}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>308}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>18}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>23, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Ghana"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>4, "Norway"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Serbia and Montenegro"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>30}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858336"], "description"=>"<p>*Carbendazim is also a degradate of benomyl; Thiabendazole is a degradate of thiophanate methyl.</p>#<p>Class: CAR  =  carbamate, CYC  =  cyclodiene, FORM  =  formamidine, FUNG  =  fungicide, HERB  =  herbicide, IGR  =  insect growth regulator, INS  =  misc. insecticide, MITI  =  miticide, NEO  =  neonicotinoid, OC  =  organochlorine, OP  =  organophosphate, PS  =  partial systemic, PYR  =  pyrethroid, S  =  systemic.</p>§<p>Mean and SEM for detections > LOD. <b><sup>†</sup></b>LOD  =  limit of detection (ppb).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pesticide", "detections", "pollen", "samples", "american"], "article_id"=>528785, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_pesticide_detections_in_pollen_samples_from_North_American_honey_bee_colonies_/528785", "title"=>"Summary of pesticide detections in pollen samples from North American honey bee colonies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:26:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858199"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation of total fungicide residues (ppb) with total pesticide contents of pollen samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fungicide", "residues", "pesticide", "contents", "pollen"], "article_id"=>528650, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_of_total_fungicide_residues_ppb_with_total_pesticide_contents_of_pollen_samples_/528650", "title"=>"Correlation of total fungicide residues (ppb) with total pesticide contents of pollen samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:24:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426402", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426410"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Recent declines in honey bees for crop pollination threaten fruit, nut, vegetable and seed production in the United States. A broad survey of pesticide residues was conducted on samples from migratory and other beekeepers across 23 states, one Canadian province and several agricultural cropping systems during the 2007–08 growing seasons.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We have used LC/MS-MS and GC/MS to analyze bees and hive matrices for pesticide residues utilizing a modified QuEChERS method. We have found 121 different pesticides and metabolites within 887 wax, pollen, bee and associated hive samples. Almost 60% of the 259 wax and 350 pollen samples contained at least one systemic pesticide, and over 47% had both in-hive acaricides fluvalinate and coumaphos, and chlorothalonil, a widely-used fungicide. In bee pollen were found chlorothalonil at levels up to 99 ppm and the insecticides aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, fungicides boscalid, captan and myclobutanil, and herbicide pendimethalin at 1 ppm levels. Almost all comb and foundation wax samples (98%) were contaminated with up to 204 and 94 ppm, respectively, of fluvalinate and coumaphos, and lower amounts of amitraz degradates and chlorothalonil, with an average of 6 pesticide detections per sample and a high of 39. There were fewer pesticides found in adults and brood except for those linked with bee kills by permethrin (20 ppm) and fipronil (3.1 ppm).</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The 98 pesticides and metabolites detected in mixtures up to 214 ppm in bee pollen alone represents a remarkably high level for toxicants in the brood and adult food of this primary pollinator. This represents over half of the maximum individual pesticide incidences ever reported for apiaries. While exposure to many of these neurotoxicants elicits acute and sublethal reductions in honey bee fitness, the effects of these materials in combinations and their direct association with CCD or declining bee health remains to be determined.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "miticides", "agrochemicals", "american", "implications"], "article_id"=>144172, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/High_Levels_of_Miticides_and_Agrochemicals_in_North_American_Apiaries_Implications_for_Honey_Bee_Health/144172", "title"=>"High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 01:09:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858107"], "description"=>"<p>Regressions of pollen chlorothalonil (A) and wax chlorothalonil (B) with total fungicides.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pollen", "wax", "chlorothalonil", "residues", "fungicide", "contents", "paired"], "article_id"=>528558, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_of_pollen_and_wax_chlorothalonil_residues_ppb_with_total_fungicide_contents_in_paired_colony_samples_/528558", "title"=>"Correlations of pollen and wax chlorothalonil residues (ppb) with total fungicide contents in paired colony samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:22:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858301"], "description"=>"<p>*Carbendazim is also a degradate of benomyl; Thiabendazole is a degradate of thiophanate methyl.</p>#<p>Class: CAR  =  carbamate, CYC  =  cyclodiene, FORM  =  formamidine, FUNG  =  fungicide, HERB  =  herbicide, IGR  =  insect growth regulator, INS  =  misc. insecticide, MITI  =  miticide, NEO  =  neonicotinoid, OC  =  organochlorine, OP  =  organophosphate, PS  =  partial systemic, PYR  =  pyrethroid, S  =  systemic.</p>§<p>Mean and SEM for detections > LOD.</p>†<p>LOD  =  limit of detection (ppb).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pesticide", "detections", "bees", "american"], "article_id"=>528753, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_pesticide_detections_in_bees_from_North_American_honey_bee_colonies_/528753", "title"=>"Summary of pesticide detections in bees from North American honey bee colonies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:25:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858267"], "description"=>"<p>*Carbendazim is also a degradate of benomyl; Thiabendazole is a degradate of thiophanate methyl.</p>#<p>Class: CAR  =  carbamate, CYC  =  cyclodiene, FORM  =  formamidine, FUNG  =  fungicide, HERB  =  herbicide, IGR  =  insect growth regulator, INS  =  misc. insecticide, MITI  =  miticide, NEO  =  neonicotinoid, OC  =  organochlorine, OP  =  organophosphate, PS  =  partial systemic, PYR  =  pyrethroid, S  =  systemic.</p>§<p>Mean and SEM for detections > LOD.</p>†<p>LOD  =  limit of detection (ppb).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pesticide", "detections", "wax", "samples", "american"], "article_id"=>528721, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_pesticide_detections_in_wax_samples_from_North_American_honey_bee_colonies_/528721", "title"=>"Summary of pesticide detections in wax samples from North American honey bee colonies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:25:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858372"], "description"=>"<p>*Thiabendazole is a degradate of thiophanate methyl.</p>#<p>Class: CAR  =  carbamate, CYC  =  cyclodiene, FORM  =  formamidine, FUNG  =  fungicide, HERB  =  herbicide, IGR  =  insect growth regulator, INS  =  misc. insecticide, MITI  =  miticide, NEO  =  neonicotinoid, OC  =  organochlorine, OP  =  organophosphate, PS  =  partial systemic, PYR  =  pyrethroid, S  =  systemic.</p>§<p>Mean and SEM for detections > LOD.</p>†<p>LOD  =  limit of detection (ppb).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pesticide", "detections", "samples", "american"], "article_id"=>528820, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_pesticide_detections_in_foundation_samples_from_North_American_honey_bee_colonies_/528820", "title"=>"Summary of pesticide detections in foundation samples from North American honey bee colonies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:27:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857994"], "description"=>"<p>Regressions of bee fluvalinate with total miticides (A), wax fluvalinate with total miticides (B), bee fluvalinate with total pesticides (C), and of wax miticides with total pesticides (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wax", "fluvalinate", "residues", "miticide", "pesticide", "contents", "paired"], "article_id"=>528438, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_of_bee_and_wax_fluvalinate_residues_ppb_with_total_miticide_and_pesticide_contents_in_paired_colony_samples_/528438", "title"=>"Correlations of bee and wax fluvalinate residues (ppb) with total miticide and pesticide contents in paired colony samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:20:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858406"], "description"=>"<p>*Aldicarb based on sulfoxide and sulfone metabolites; Amitraz based on total DMA and DMPF metabolites; Captan includes THPI; Carbaryl includes 1-naphthol; Carbendazim is also a degradate of benomyl; Coumaphos includes oxon, chlorferone and potasan; Endosulfan includes isomers and sulfate; Imidacloprid includes 5-hydroxy and olefin metabolites; Thiabendazole is a degradate of thiophanate methyl.</p>#<p>Class: CAR  =  carbamate, CYC  =  cyclodiene, FORM  =  formamidine, FUNG  =  fungicide, HERB  =  herbicide, IGR  =  insect growth regulator.</p><p>INS  =  misc. insecticide, NEO  =  neonicotinoid, OC  =  organochlorine, OP  =  organophosphate, PS  =  partial systemic, PYR  =  pyrethroid, S  =  systemic.</p>¶<p>LD50 is ave. honey bee acute toxicity from literature in ppb  =  10,000× µg/bee; bold nos. < LD50.</p>§<p>Mean and SEM for all analyzed samples; non detects  =  0 ppb.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["incidence", "749", "pollen", "samples", "american"], "article_id"=>528858, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Ecology", "Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Christopher A. Mullin", "Maryann Frazier", "James L. Frazier", "Sara Ashcraft", "Roger Simonds", "Dennis vanEngelsdorp", "Jeffery S. Pettis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009754.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pesticide_incidence_in_749_wax_pollen_and_bee_samples_from_North_American_honey_bee_colonies_/528858", "title"=>"Pesticide incidence in 749 wax, pollen and bee samples from North American honey bee colonies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:27:38"}

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Relative Metric

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