Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics
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{"title"=>"Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Raichlen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506540179"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam D.", "last_name"=>"Gordon", "scopus_author_id"=>"10739419100"}, {"first_name"=>"William E.H.", "last_name"=>"Harcourt-Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"16041929000"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam D.", "last_name"=>"Foster", "scopus_author_id"=>"37001708200"}, {"first_name"=>"Wm Randall", "last_name"=>"Haas", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197447603"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368261751", "sgr"=>"77955448541", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"20339543", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955448541", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009769", "isbn"=>"1003192025"}, "id"=>"1e4af3ce-86d3-302e-b971-e3200857ae74", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an experimental design, we show that the Laetoli hominins walked with weight transfer most similar to the economical extended limb bipedalism of humans. Humans walked through a sand trackway using both extended limb bipedalism, and more flexed limb bipedalism. Footprint morphology from extended limb trials matches weight distribution patterns found in the Laetoli footprints.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: These results provide us with the earliest direct evidence of kinematically human-like bipedalism currently known, and show that extended limb bipedalism evolved long before the appearance of the genus Homo. Since extended-limb bipedalism is more energetically economical than ape-like bipedalism, energy expenditure was likely an important selection pressure on hominin bipeds by 3.6 Ma.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/laetoli-footprints-preserve-earliest-direct-evidence-humanlike-bipedal-biomechanics", "reader_count"=>195, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>16, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>36, "Lecturer"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>16, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>36, "Lecturer"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>52, "Arts and Humanities"=>29, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>23, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Sports and Recreations"=>5, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>37}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>37}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>29}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>23}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>52}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>8, "Portugal"=>3, "Spain"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857510"], "description"=>"<p>Laetoli values were calculated using values from topographic maps. Note that the values for Laetoli fall within the range of human normal prints but outside of the range of human BKBH prints.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depths", "laetoli"], "article_id"=>527972, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David A. Raichlen", "Adam D. Gordon", "William E. H. Harcourt-Smith", "Adam D. Foster", "Wm. Randall Haas Jr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Toe_depths_as_a_fraction_of_heel_depth_for_BKBH_normal_walking_and_Laetoli_prints_/527972", "title"=>"Toe depths as a fraction of heel depth for BKBH, normal walking and Laetoli prints.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-22 02:12:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857412"], "description"=>"<p>Contours are 1 mm. A) Contour map of modern human footprint (Subject 6) walking with a normal, extended limb gait and side view of normal, extended limb footprint. B) Contour map of modern human footprint (Subject 6) walking with a BKBH gait and side view of BKBH print. C) Contour map of Laetoli footprint (G1-37) and side view of Laetoli footprint (G1-37). Note the difference in heel and toe depths between modern humans walking with extended and BKBH gaits. Laetoli has similar toe relative to heel depths as the modern human extended limb print.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dimensional", "scans", "footprints", "laetoli"], "article_id"=>527868, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David A. Raichlen", "Adam D. Gordon", "William E. H. Harcourt-Smith", "Adam D. Foster", "Wm. Randall Haas Jr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_dimensional_scans_of_experimental_footprints_and_a_Laetoli_footprint_/527868", "title"=>"Three dimensional scans of experimental footprints and a Laetoli footprint.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-22 02:11:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857653"], "description"=>"<p>p is preferred walk; f is fast walk; d is dry (6–8% water); w is wet (10–12% water).</p><p>Values are toe depths as a fraction of heel depth. P-values are for T-Tests comparing BKBH and extended (normal) datasets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depths"], "article_id"=>528114, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David A. Raichlen", "Adam D. Gordon", "William E. H. Harcourt-Smith", "Adam D. Foster", "Wm. Randall Haas Jr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportional_toe_depths_of_human_footprints_/528114", "title"=>"Proportional toe depths of human footprints.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-22 02:15:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426279", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426326", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426358", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426422", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426452", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426476", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426509"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest <em>direct</em> evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Using an experimental design, we show that the Laetoli hominins walked with weight transfer most similar to the economical extended limb bipedalism of humans. Humans walked through a sand trackway using both extended limb bipedalism, and more flexed limb bipedalism. Footprint morphology from extended limb trials matches weight distribution patterns found in the Laetoli footprints.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>These results provide us with the earliest direct evidence of kinematically human-like bipedalism currently known, and show that extended limb bipedalism evolved long before the appearance of the genus <em>Homo</em>. Since extended-limb bipedalism is more energetically economical than ape-like bipedalism, energy expenditure was likely an important selection pressure on hominin bipeds by 3.6 Ma.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["laetoli", "footprints", "earliest", "human-like", "bipedal", "biomechanics"], "article_id"=>144154, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David A. Raichlen", "Adam D. Gordon", "William E. H. Harcourt-Smith", "Adam D. Foster", "Wm. Randall Haas Jr"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>31, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Laetoli_Footprints_Preserve_Earliest_Direct_Evidence_of_Human_Like_Bipedal_Biomechanics/144154", "title"=>"Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-03-22 01:09:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857594"], "description"=>"<p>A) COP movement during bipedal walking. Fraction from touchdown (TD) is the mean time as a fraction of stance phase when the COP passes anterior to the metatarsal heads (error bars are SEMs). B) Late stance impulses during bipedal walking. Values are mean for the ground reaction force impulse <i>after</i> the COP passes anterior to the metatarsal heads (error bars are SEMs). Normal is extended limb walking, BKBH 1 is walking with a slightly flexed knee and hip, BKBH 2 is walking with a deeply flexed knee and hip.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humans"], "article_id"=>528053, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["David A. Raichlen", "Adam D. Gordon", "William E. H. Harcourt-Smith", "Adam D. Foster", "Wm. Randall Haas Jr"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009769.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Center_of_pressure_COP_position_and_ground_reaction_force_impulse_in_humans_walking_with_different_limb_postures_/528053", "title"=>"Center of pressure (COP) position and ground reaction force impulse in humans walking with different limb postures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-22 02:14:13"}

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