The Young, the Weak and the Sick: Evidence of Natural Selection by Predation
Publication Date
March 19, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Meritxell Genovart, Nieves Negre, Giacomo Tavecchia, Ana Bistuer, et al
Volume
5
Issue
3
Pages
e9774
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0009774
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20333305
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841644
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20333305
Web of Science
000275809700013
Scopus
79952115101
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/young-weak-sick-evidence-natural-selection-predation
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Mendeley | Further Information

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CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858156"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of the factors affecting predation from the best ranked model, which included age as a continuous covariate, muscle condition as a factor with three levels (normal, low and high), and sickness, as a factor with two levels (healthy and sick).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["factors", "affecting", "predation", "ranked", "included", "levels"], "article_id"=>528608, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_the_factors_affecting_predation_from_the_best_ranked_model_which_included_age_as_a_continuous_covariate_muscle_condition_as_a_factor_with_three_levels_normal_low_and_high_and_sickness_as_a_factor_with_two_levels_healthy_and_sick_/528608", "title"=>"Estimates of the factors affecting predation from the best ranked model, which included age as a continuous covariate, muscle condition as a factor with three levels (normal, low and high), and sickness, as a factor with two levels (healthy and sick).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:23:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426387"], "description"=>"<div><p>It is assumed that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals, but even though some studies partially support this idea, evidence with large sample sizes, exhaustive analysis of prey and robust analysis is lacking. We gathered data from a culling program of yellow-legged gulls killed by two methods: by the use of raptors or by shooting at random. We compared both data sets to assess whether birds of prey killed randomly or by relying on specific individual features of the prey. We carried out a meticulous post-mortem examination of individuals, and analysing multiple prey characteristics simultaneously we show that raptors did not hunt randomly, but rather preferentially predate on juveniles, sick gulls, and individuals with poor muscle condition. Strikingly, gulls with an unusually good muscle condition were also predated more than expected, supporting the mass-dependent predation risk theory. This article provides a reliable example of how natural selection may operate in the wild and proves that predators mainly prey on substandard individuals.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predation"], "article_id"=>144169, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Young_the_Weak_and_the_Sick_Evidence_of_Natural_Selection_by_Predation/144169", "title"=>"The Young, the Weak and the Sick: Evidence of Natural Selection by Predation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 01:09:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857825"], "description"=>"<p>Map of the two main factorial axes from a Multiple Correspondence Analysis between individuals shot (noted by Shoot) and those killed by birds of prey (noted by Falco) depending on individual classification (F: Females; M: Males; J: Juveniles; I2: 2 years old; I3: 3 years old; A: Adults; H: Healthy individuals; S: Sick; AM: Abnormal muscle condition (low and high); NM: normal muscle condition).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correspondence", "individuals", "killed"], "article_id"=>528277, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_Correspondence_Analysis_between_individuals_shot_and_those_killed_by_raptors_/528277", "title"=>"Multiple Correspondence Analysis between individuals shot and those killed by raptors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:17:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857919"], "description"=>"<p>All juveniles and immature classes were grouped in a single, sub-adult age class and compared with adult gulls. Smoothing regression surfaces are represented using a Lowess method by iteration of weighted least squares on the selected variables. Highest probability of being killed by predators occurred on sub-adult gulls with severe sicknesses and abnormal muscle condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probability", "predated"], "article_id"=>528381, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Determinants_of_probability_of_being_predated_by_the_raptors_/528381", "title"=>"Determinants of probability of being predated by the raptors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:19:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858046"], "description"=>"<p>Removed birds were examined to determine the sex and age of the individual, the individual nutritional state, assessed from fat layers and muscle condition, and any sign of infection, malformation or disease. We identified four age classes by plumage features: juveniles (from 0 to 1 year old), 2 years old (from 1 to 2 years old), 3 years old (from 2 to 3 years old), and adults (>3 years old). We determined three levels of body condition: normal, low and high, depending on the layers of muscle mass). Veterinarians determined if the illness detected was either severe or mild.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gulls", "removed", "birds"], "article_id"=>528504, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_traits_of_gulls_removed_by_shooting_or_by_the_use_of_birds_of_prey_/528504", "title"=>"Individual traits of gulls removed by shooting or by the use of birds of prey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:21:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858084"], "description"=>"<p>Results of the exhaustive post-mortem examination of culled gulls (N = 506 and 122 for shooting and caught by raptors respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exhaustive", "post-mortem", "culled", "gulls", "122", "caught", "raptors"], "article_id"=>528534, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_exhaustive_post_mortem_examination_of_culled_gulls_N_8202_8202_506_and_122_for_shooting_and_caught_by_raptors_respectively_/528534", "title"=>"Results of the exhaustive post-mortem examination of culled gulls (N = 506 and 122 for shooting and caught by raptors respectively).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:22:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858109"], "description"=>"<p>Frequencies and percentages of each age-class were shown separately for each census period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gulls", "age-class", "counted", "censuses", "compared"], "article_id"=>528563, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Meritxell Genovart", "Nieves Negre", "Giacomo Tavecchia", "Ana Bistuer", "Luís Parpal", "Daniel Oro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009774.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_gulls_of_each_age_class_sub_adults_and_adults_counted_during_the_censuses_and_compared_with_those_of_gulls_shot_at_the_dump_/528563", "title"=>"Frequencies of gulls of each age-class (sub-adults and adults) counted during the censuses and compared with those of gulls shot at the dump.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-03-19 02:22:43"}

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