Growing Season Temperatures in Europe and Climate Forcings Over the Past 1400 Years
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{"title"=>"Growing season temperatures in Europe and climate forcings over the past 1400 years", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joel", "last_name"=>"Guiot", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005428977"}, {"first_name"=>"Christophe", "last_name"=>"Corona", "scopus_author_id"=>"36143932300"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955364637", "sgr"=>"77955364637", "pui"=>"359482028", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009972", "pmid"=>"20376366", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0009972"}, "id"=>"a77716b0-2369-343d-8a68-82cf4728539c", "abstract"=>"The lack of instrumental data before the mid-19th-century limits our understanding of present warming trends. In the absence of direct measurements, we used proxies that are natural or historical archives recording past climatic changes. A gridded reconstruction of spring-summer temperature was produced for Europe based on tree-rings, documentaries, pollen assemblages and ice cores. The majority of proxy series have an annual resolution. For a better inference of long-term climate variation, they were completed by low-resolution data (decadal or more), mostly on pollen and ice-core data.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/growing-season-temperatures-europe-climate-forcings-past-1400-years", "reader_count"=>87, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>32, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>32}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856676"], "description"=>"<p>The black lines represent the reconstructions, the smoothed smoothed confidence interval at 95% are displayed in grey, the blue line is the smoothed reconstruction, orange and red lines are respectively raw and smoothed observations. (a) Eur_SW, Europe south of 45°N and west of 20°E, (b) Eur_SE, Europe south of 45°N and east of 20°E, (c) Eur_NW, Europe north of 45°N and west of 20°E, (d) Eur_SE, Europe south of 45°N and east of 20°E, (e) Eur_mean, whole of Europe. The gridpoints for which RE<0 were excluded from the average.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["april", "september", "anomalies", "averaged", "parts"], "article_id"=>527136, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_April_to_September_temperature_anomalies_averaged_on_various_parts_of_Europe_/527136", "title"=>"Mean April to September temperature anomalies averaged on various parts of Europe.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:58:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856805"], "description"=>"<p>REC  =  reconstructions, OBS  =  observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["april", "september", "anomalies", "averaged", "50-years"], "article_id"=>527262, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_April_to_September_temperature_anomalies_averaged_on_selected_50_years_periods_/527262", "title"=>"Map of April to September temperature anomalies averaged on selected 50-years periods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 02:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857090"], "description"=>"<p>Sources are literature (Pfister, 1993; Le Roy Ladurie, 1967, 2007; Luterbacher et al, 2004). The years which disagree with our reconstruction are underlined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["springs"], "article_id"=>527561, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_the_cold_and_warm_springs_and_or_summers_/527561", "title"=>"List of the cold and warm springs and/or summers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 02:06:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856926"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sliding spatial mean and (B) variance calculated on 50-yr maps (we have first calculated 50-yr maps and then averages and variances of these maps). Panel (C) represents the ratio of curves (A) and (B). Panel D represents the standard deviation of the European mean temperature by 50-years intervals. Black lines represent the reconstructions and red circles represent the observations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["means"], "article_id"=>527386, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_means_and_variances_/527386", "title"=>"Comparison of means and variances.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 02:03:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857132"], "description"=>"<p>*The time-slice 1760–1780 for Casty starts in fact in 1766.</p><p>Square-root of mean squared discrepancies (RMSD) between the 20-yr mean maps of this paper and the 20-yr mean maps of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone.0009972-Casty1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a> and between the 20-yr mean maps of this paper and the 20-yr mean maps of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone.0009972-Luterbacher1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a>. The last two rows present the correlation between our mean time-series and those of Casty and Luterbacher on respectively the common years before 1850 and after.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstructions"], "article_id"=>527594, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_reconstructions_with_previous_works_/527594", "title"=>"Comparison of the reconstructions with previous works.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 02:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856574"], "description"=>"<p>Maps of April to September temperature anomaly reconstructions averaged for time-slices corresponding to high and low solar activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["april", "september", "anomaly", "reconstructions", "averaged", "time-slices", "corresponding"], "article_id"=>527029, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maps_of_April_to_September_temperature_anomaly_reconstructions_averaged_for_time_slices_corresponding_to_high_and_low_solar_activity_/527029", "title"=>"Maps of April to September temperature anomaly reconstructions averaged for time-slices corresponding to high and low solar activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:57:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856200"], "description"=>"<p>The above panel presents maps for several time periods. The CASTY maps have a 0.5° resolution while the reconstruction in this paper has a resolution of 5°. The lower panel show the mean temperature for Europe: in orange, the CASTY series (trend in red) and in black, this paper's reconstruction (trend in blue) with (in grey) the 90% confidence interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "april", "september", "anomalies", "produced"], "article_id"=>526654, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_reconstruction_of_the_April_to_September_temperature_anomalies_this_paper_with_the_one_produced_by_19_/526654", "title"=>"Comparison of the reconstruction of the April to September temperature anomalies (this paper) with the one produced by [19].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:50:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856446"], "description"=>"<p>The most explosive eruptions have been analysed, for example: 1991 (Pinatubo, Philippines), 1912 (Novarupta, Alaska), 1902 (Santa Maria, Guatemala), 1883 (Krakatoa, Indonesia), 1815 (Tambora, Indonesia), 1783 (Laki, Iceland), 1600 (Huaynaputina, Peru), 1452–1453 (Kuwae, Vanatu), and 934 (Laki, Iceland); but also the events with a large volcanic explosive index (VEI) such as reported by <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone.0009972-Mann3\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone.0009972-Mann4\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a>. The lower right map is a composite map calculated as an average of the 22 other maps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["april", "september", "anomaly", "reconstructions", "coldest", "reconstructed", "years", "volcanic", "eruption"], "article_id"=>526895, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maps_of_April_to_September_temperature_anomaly_reconstructions_for_the_coldest_reconstructed_year_among_the_three_years_starting_at_a_volcanic_eruption_event_/526895", "title"=>"Maps of April to September temperature anomaly reconstructions for the coldest reconstructed year among the three years starting at a volcanic eruption event.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:54:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856293"], "description"=>"<p>The upper panel represents April to September temperature anomaly reconstructions for four years known for the literature to be cold, and the middle panel represents known warm years. The lower maps are averaged maps on all the selected years pointed out in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone-0009972-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational biology/ecosystem modeling", "ecology/global change ecology", "physics/earth sciences"], "article_id"=>526748, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extreme_warm_and_cold_years_/526748", "title"=>"Extreme warm and cold years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:52:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426054", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426289", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426299", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426307", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426318", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426328", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426347", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426355", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426419", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426438", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426463", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426481", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426502", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426528", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426550", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426572", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/426593"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The lack of instrumental data before the mid-19th-century limits our understanding of present warming trends. In the absence of direct measurements, we used proxies that are natural or historical archives recording past climatic changes. A gridded reconstruction of spring-summer temperature was produced for Europe based on tree-rings, documentaries, pollen assemblages and ice cores. The majority of proxy series have an annual resolution. For a better inference of long-term climate variation, they were completed by low-resolution data (decadal or more), mostly on pollen and ice-core data.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>An original spectral analog method was devised to deal with this heterogeneous dataset, and to preserve long-term variations and the variability of temperature series. So we can replace the recent climate changes in a broader context of the past 1400 years. This preservation is possible because the method is not based on a calibration (regression) but on similarities between assemblages of proxies. The reconstruction of the April-September temperatures was validated with a Jack-knife technique. It was also compared to other spatially gridded temperature reconstructions, literature data, and glacier advance and retreat curves. We also attempted to relate the spatial distribution of European temperature anomalies to known solar and volcanic forcings.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>We found that our results were accurate back to 750. Cold periods prior to the 20<sup>th</sup> century can be explained partly by low solar activity and/or high volcanic activity. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) could be correlated to higher solar activity. During the 20<sup>th</sup> century, however only anthropogenic forcing can explain the exceptionally high temperature rise. Warm periods of the Middle Age were spatially more heterogeneous than last decades, and then locally it could have been warmer. However, at the continental scale, the last decades were clearly warmer than any period of the last 1400 years. The heterogeneity of MWP versus the homogeneity of the last decades is likely an argument that different forcings could have operated. These results support the fact that we are living a climate change in Europe never seen in the past 1400 years.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["temperatures", "europe", "forcings", "1400", "years"], "article_id"=>144121, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.s018"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>54, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Growing_Season_Temperatures_in_Europe_and_Climate_Forcings_Over_the_Past_1400_Years/144121", "title"=>"Growing Season Temperatures in Europe and Climate Forcings Over the Past 1400 Years", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:08:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855990"], "description"=>"<p>A) Map of the proxies used. B) Number of proxy series available as a function of the year, from 600 to 2007.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational biology/ecosystem modeling", "ecology/global change ecology", "physics/earth sciences"], "article_id"=>526449, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_proxies_/526449", "title"=>"Characteristics of the proxies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:47:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857017"], "description"=>"<p>The upper panel displays the averaged map on the 10 coldest years before 1900 and after; the lower panel displays the 10 warmest years. All values are April to September temperature anomalies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["years"], "article_id"=>527479, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_extreme_years_before_and_after_1900_/527479", "title"=>"Comparison of extreme years before and after 1900.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 02:04:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856354"], "description"=>"<p>In black, the smoothed April-September temperature of the [7.5°E, 47.5°N] and [2.5°E, 62.5°N] grid-points and in blue, the advance and retreat glacier curve of respectively Aletsch glacier and group of Scandinavian glaciers <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone.0009972-Haeberli1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972#pone.0009972-Jansen1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>. The temperature curves are in °C (anomalies) and the glacier curves in dimensionless units.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstructions", "glacier"], "article_id"=>526817, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_reconstructions_and_glacier_curves_/526817", "title"=>"Comparison of the reconstructions and glacier curves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:53:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/856092"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: AM, analog method, SD, spectral decomposition, PC, transformation into principal components, SR, spectral recomposition, PC<sup>−1</sup>, back-tranformation of the principal components into original variables, HF, high frequency, MF, medium frequency, LF, low frequency.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction"], "article_id"=>526559, "categories"=>["Physics", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Joel Guiot", "Christophe Corona"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009972.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schema_of_the_reconstruction_method_see_text_for_more_details_/526559", "title"=>"Schema of the reconstruction method (see text for more details).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-01 01:49:19"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2010-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2010-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[375, 666, 837, 949, 1062, 1171, 1233, 1318, 1399, 1470, 1550, 1608, 1701, 1771, 1835, 1908, 1973, 2046, 2091, 2160, 2220, 2285, 2359, 2455, 2537, 2610, 2687, 2778, 2836, 2908, 2974, 3021, 3082, 3169, 3224, 3300, 3382, 3469, 3550, 3640, 3728, 3765, 3814, 3858, 3915, 3952, 3991, 4067, 4107]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[387, 548, 660, 794, 870, 933, 1051, 1186, 1286, 1320, 1369, 1408, 1469, 1522, 1563, 1619, 1672, 1724, 1799, 1878, 1973, 2066, 2155, 2222, 2308, 2394, 2475, 2595, 2751, 2889, 3029, 3168, 3265, 3387, 3455, 3548, 3633, 3707, 3773, 3960, 4080, 4201, 4264, 4350, 4440, 4521, 4636, 4728, 4798]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[892, 1350, 1709, 1991, 2222, 2439, 2630, 2818, 2953, 3103, 3283, 3396, 3477, 3583, 3709, 3804, 3954, 4086, 4216, 4332, 4442, 4559, 4660, 4768, 4932, 5058, 5142, 5229, 5329, 5404, 5611, 5741, 6010, 6183, 6304, 6427, 6541, 6648, 6738, 6857, 6973, 7092, 7205, 7319, 7419, 7498, 7580, 7635, 7696]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[300, 565, 713, 834, 949, 1067, 1154, 1249, 1325, 1400, 1475, 1554, 1619, 1696, 1757, 1821, 1905, 1968, 2034, 2088, 2147, 2218, 2289, 2365, 2434, 2491, 2560, 2618, 2682, 2777, 2842, 2910, 2977, 3035, 3107, 3178, 3250, 3313, 3383, 3445, 3512, 3569, 3631, 3683, 3748, 3818, 3882, 3942]}]}
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