The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics
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{"title"=>"The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mehdi", "last_name"=>"Moussaïd", "scopus_author_id"=>"26028667700"}, {"first_name"=>"Niriaska", "last_name"=>"Perozo", "scopus_author_id"=>"14021993500"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Garnier", "scopus_author_id"=>"13006090300"}, {"first_name"=>"Dirk", "last_name"=>"Helbing", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005232363"}, {"first_name"=>"Guy", "last_name"=>"Theraulaz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004591018"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77956323937", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0010047", "pui"=>"359482151", "arxiv"=>"1003.3894", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"20383280", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956323937"}, "id"=>"ccd96020-6d17-3636-bbda-2b2a88c798fe", "abstract"=>"Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its \"non-aerodynamic\" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/walking-behaviour-pedestrian-social-groups-impact-crowd-dynamics", "reader_count"=>372, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Researcher"=>59, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855268"], "description"=>"<p>a) is the gazing direction vector of pedestrian <i>i</i>. The dashed lines represent the borders of the visual field. b) Pedestrian <i>i</i> rotates his head direction by an angle , so that the focus point c<i><sub>i</sub></i> is included in the vision field.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mathematics/nonlinear dynamics", "neuroscience/animal cognition", "physics/interdisciplinary physics"], "article_id"=>525722, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_the_model_variables_/525722", "title"=>"Illustration of the model variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855149"], "description"=>"<p>We define and d<sub>ij</sub> as the angle and distance between pedestrians <i>i</i> and <i>j</i>, where <i>i</i> and <i>j</i> belong to the same group and <i>j</i> is <i>i</i>'s closest neighbour on the right-hand side.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mathematics/nonlinear dynamics", "neuroscience/animal cognition", "physics/interdisciplinary physics"], "article_id"=>525607, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_the_measurement_method_/525607", "title"=>"Illustration of the measurement method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:33:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855372"], "description"=>"<p>Values between brackets indicate the standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["members"], "article_id"=>525830, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_angle_and_distance_values_between_group_members_for_each_group_size_and_density_level_/525830", "title"=>"Average angle and distance values between group members for each group size and density level.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:37:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855185"], "description"=>"<p>The positions of pedestrians are reconstructed from the empirical angle and distance values provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047#pone-0010047-t001\" target=\"_blank\">table 1</a> (dark grey), and from simulation results (light grey). The best fit parameters were obtained through a calibration process and amount to  = 4;  = 3;  = 1; d<sub>o</sub> = 0.8 m;  = 90°.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns"], "article_id"=>525647, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_patterns_of_organization_/525647", "title"=>"Average patterns of organization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:34:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855322"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Speed-density curves showing the impact of group organization on traffic efficiency. For  = 0, group members are attracted by the group's centre of mass only letting them stay together. This creates an <i>inverse</i> V-shaped configuration. For  = 4, the value determined from our empirical observations, group members adapt their position to see the other group members, creating a V-shaped configuration. The dashed curve corresponds to simulations with isolated pedestrians only (no groups). (b) Illustration of typical group patterns for  = 0 and  = 4 at a density of 0.25 ped/m<sup>2</sup>. The simulation parameters are the same as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047#pone-0010047-g004\" target=\"_blank\">figure 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pedestrian", "groups", "communication-enhancing"], "article_id"=>525776, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulation_results_for_pedestrian_groups_with_and_without_communication_enhancing_interactions_/525776", "title"=>"Simulation results for pedestrian groups with and without communication-enhancing interactions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:36:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855040"], "description"=>"<p>The light grey curve indicates the zero-truncated Poisson fit () with and for populations A and B, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["populations"], "article_id"=>525501, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_group_size_distribution_in_populations_A_and_B_/525501", "title"=>"Observed group size distribution in populations A and B.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:31:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425223", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/425238"], "description"=>"<div><p>Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its “non-aerodynamic” shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["behaviour", "pedestrian", "groups"], "article_id"=>143946, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Walking_Behaviour_of_Pedestrian_Social_Groups_and_Its_Impact_on_Crowd_Dynamics/143946", "title"=>"The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:05:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/855101"], "description"=>"<p>Average walking speed as a function of group size at low density (light grey) and moderate density (dark grey). Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean value. The fit curves are <i>y = −0.04x+1.26</i> for population A and <i>y = −0.08x+1.24</i> for population B.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mathematics/nonlinear dynamics", "neuroscience/animal cognition", "physics/interdisciplinary physics"], "article_id"=>525554, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Neuroscience", "Physics"], "users"=>["Mehdi Moussaïd", "Niriaska Perozo", "Simon Garnier", "Dirk Helbing", "Guy Theraulaz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010047.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_group_size_on_walking_speed_/525554", "title"=>"Effects of group size on walking speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-04-07 01:32:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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