“Positive” Results Increase Down the Hierarchy of the Sciences
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{"title"=>"\"Positive\" results increase down the hierarchy of the sciences", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniele", "last_name"=>"Fanelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"26644812800"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77956329449", "pmid"=>"20383332", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956329449", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"359482143", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0010068"}, "id"=>"b702e590-367f-3172-beb5-9a3a6f5436bd", "abstract"=>"The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the \"hardness\" of scientific research--i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors--is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published in all disciplines and that declared to have tested a hypothesis. It was determined how many papers reported a \"positive\" (full or partial) or \"negative\" support for the tested hypothesis. If the hierarchy hypothesis is correct, then researchers in \"softer\" sciences should have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases, and therefore report more positive outcomes. Results confirmed the predictions at all levels considered: discipline, domain and methodology broadly defined. Controlling for observed differences between pure and applied disciplines, and between papers testing one or several hypotheses, the odds of reporting a positive result were around 5 times higher among papers in the disciplines of Psychology and Psychiatry and Economics and Business compared to Space Science, 2.3 times higher in the domain of social sciences compared to the physical sciences, and 3.4 times higher in studies applying behavioural and social methodologies on people compared to physical and chemical studies on non-biological material. In all comparisons, biological studies had intermediate values. These results suggest that the nature of hypotheses tested and the logical and methodological rigour employed to test them vary systematically across disciplines and fields, depending on the complexity of the subject matter and possibly other factors (e.g., a field's level of historical and/or intellectual development). On the other hand, these results support the scientific status of the social sciences against claims that they are completely subjective, by showing that, when they adopt a scientific approach to discovery, they differ from the natural sciences only by a matter of degree.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/positive-results-increase-down-hierarchy-sciences", "reader_count"=>416, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>23, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>84, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>91, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>50, "Other"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>49, "Lecturer"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>23, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>84, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>29, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>91, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>50, "Other"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>49, "Lecturer"=>10, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>75, "Philosophy"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>10, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>13, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>11, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>19, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>24, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>10, "Psychology"=>159, "Social Sciences"=>36, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>24}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>36}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>159}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>21}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>19}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>11}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>75}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>13}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>10}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>16, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Switzerland"=>3, "Portugal"=>2, "Iceland"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "Canada"=>5, "Venezuela"=>1, "Netherlands"=>5, "Austria"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "Norway"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>8, "Mexico"=>3, "Australia"=>3, "France"=>5, "Germany"=>6}, "group_count"=>13}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857526"], "description"=>"<p>Name of discipline, abbreviation used throughout the paper, sample size and percentage of “positive” results (i.e. papers that support a tested hypothesis). Classification by discipline was based on the Essential Science Indicators database, the hard/soft, pure/applied and life/non-life categories were based on previous literature (see text for details). Error bars represent 95% logit-derived confidence interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "chemistry", "computer science", "ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "genetics and genomics", "immunology", "pharmacology", "physics", "science policy", "ecology/behavioral ecology", "mathematics/statistics", "evidence-based healthcare/bedside evidence-based medicine", "evidence-based healthcare/methods for diagnostic and therapeutic studies", "evidence-based healthcare/quality and safety in medical practice"], "article_id"=>527966, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Positive_Results_by_Discipline_/527966", "title"=>"Positive Results by Discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:08:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857831"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of papers that supported a tested hypothesis in pure (top) and applied (bottom) disciplines, plotted by general characteristics of their methodology (defined by the outcome, see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068#pone-0010068-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>). The “other methodology” category is not shown. Black = studies on non-human material or subjects, Red = studies on human material or subjects. Error bars represent 95% logit-derived confidence interval.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methodological"], "article_id"=>528295, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Positive_Results_by_Methodological_Category_/528295", "title"=>"Positive Results by Methodological Category.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:10:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857932"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of discipline was tested for overall effect then each discipline was contrasted to Space Science by indicator contrast.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "wald", "probability", "was", "papers", "included"], "article_id"=>528390, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Logistic_regression_slope_standard_error_Wald_test_with_statistical_significance_Odds_Ratio_and_95_Confidence_Interval_of_the_probability_for_a_paper_to_report_a_positive_result_depending_on_the_following_study_characteristics_discipline_of_the_journal_i/528390", "title"=>"Logistic regression slope, standard error, Wald test with statistical significance, Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval of the probability for a paper to report a positive result, depending on the following study characteristics: discipline of the journal in which the paper was published, papers testing more than one hypothesis (only the first of which was included in the study).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:10:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857604"], "description"=>"<p>Number of papers that supported (white) or failed to support (black) a tested hypothesis, classified by disciplinary categories based on dimensions identified by previous studies (see text for explanations). Percentage in each bar refers to positive results. OR = Odds Ratio (and 95%Confidence Interval) of reporting a positive result compared to the reference category of Hard/Pure disciplines. Chi square was calculated for each dimension separately (for category composition see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068#pone-0010068-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disciplinary"], "article_id"=>528067, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Positive_Results_by_Disciplinary_Dimension_/528067", "title"=>"Positive Results by Disciplinary Dimension.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:08:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857963"], "description"=>"<p>Methodological category (see text for details) was tested for overall effect, then each category was contrasted by indicator contrast to physical/chemical studies on non-biological material.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "wald", "probability", "methodological", "papers", "was", "included", "published", "applied"], "article_id"=>528414, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Logistic_regression_slope_standard_error_Wald_test_with_statistical_significance_Odds_Ratio_and_95_Confidence_Interval_of_the_probability_for_a_paper_to_report_a_positive_result_depending_on_the_following_study_characteristics_methodological_category_pap/528414", "title"=>"Logistic regression slope, standard error, Wald test with statistical significance, Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval of the probability for a paper to report a positive result, depending on the following study characteristics: methodological category, papers testing more than one hypothesis (only the first of which was included in the study), and papers published in pure as opposed to applied disciplines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:11:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857762"], "description"=>"<p>Methodology employed by papers in different disciplines and domains. Methodological categories correspond to basic characteristics of the outcome: whether it measured physical/chemical parameters as opposed to behavioural parameters, and whether the object of study was non-biological, biological non-human, or biological human (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> for further details).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["methodology"], "article_id"=>528217, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_Methodology_by_Discipline_and_by_Domain_/528217", "title"=>"General Methodology by Discipline and by Domain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:09:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/858004"], "description"=>"<p>Disciplinary domain was tested for overall effect, then biological and social sciences were each contrasted to physical sciences by indicator contrast.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "wald", "probability", "disciplinary", "papers", "was", "included", "published", "applied"], "article_id"=>528453, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Logistic_regression_slope_standard_error_Wald_test_with_statistical_significance_Odds_Ratio_and_95_Confidence_Interval_of_the_probability_for_a_paper_to_report_a_positive_result_depending_on_the_following_study_characteristics_disciplinary_domain_papers_/528453", "title"=>"Logistic regression slope, standard error, Wald test with statistical significance, Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval of the probability for a paper to report a positive result, depending on the following study characteristics: disciplinary domain, papers testing more than one hypothesis (only the first of which was included in the study), and papers published in pure as opposed to applied disciplines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:11:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/857674"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of papers that supported a tested hypothesis, classified by disciplinary domain. Blue = including only pure disciplines, Red = including only applied disciplines, Black = all disciplines included. Error bars represent 95% logit-derived confidence interval. For domain composition see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068#pone-0010068-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disciplinary"], "article_id"=>528134, "categories"=>["Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Science Policy", "Physics", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Genetics", "Computational Biology", "Immunology", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Chemistry", "Ecology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Daniele Fanelli"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010068.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Positive_Results_by_Disciplinary_Domain_/528134", "title"=>"Positive Results by Disciplinary Domain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 02:09:20"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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