Spirulina Promotes Stem Cell Genesis and Protects against LPS Induced Declines in Neural Stem Cell Proliferation
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{"title"=>"Spirulina promotes stem cell genesis and protects against LPS induced declines in neural stem cell proliferation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adam D.", "last_name"=>"Bachstetter", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505466824"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer", "last_name"=>"Jernberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"35217772200"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Schlunk", "scopus_author_id"=>"35218273900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer L.", "last_name"=>"Vila", "scopus_author_id"=>"9238013900"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles", "last_name"=>"Hudson", "scopus_author_id"=>"34570188300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Cole", "scopus_author_id"=>"16229550000"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Douglas", "last_name"=>"Shytle", "scopus_author_id"=>"35213929400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Tan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402302301"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul R.", "last_name"=>"Sanberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"36046821700"}, {"first_name"=>"Cyndy D.", "last_name"=>"Sanberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507233782"}, {"first_name"=>"Cesario", "last_name"=>"Borlongan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007115371"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuji", "last_name"=>"Kaneko", "scopus_author_id"=>"35421676200"}, {"first_name"=>"Naoki", "last_name"=>"Tajiri", "scopus_author_id"=>"24802666700"}, {"first_name"=>"Carmelina", "last_name"=>"Gemma", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602899116"}, {"first_name"=>"Paula C.", "last_name"=>"Bickford", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005451581"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20463965", "sgr"=>"77956532401", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0010496", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956532401", "pui"=>"359515443", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"ad549cb6-0588-31e0-bb24-a3cb22cc71b9", "abstract"=>"Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020) of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the negative influence of TNFalpha to reduce neural stem cell proliferation. These results support the hypothesis that a diet enriched with spirulina and other nutraceuticals may help protect the stem/progenitor cells from insults.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/spirulina-promotes-stem-cell-genesis-protects-against-lps-induced-declines-neural-stem-cell-prolifer", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>29}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851675"], "description"=>"<p>Human neural progenitors grown under proliferation conditions were assessed by MTT assay (<b>A</b>) or BrdU (<b>B</b>) for the effects of spirulina (125 ng/ml) or NT-020 (500 ng/ml) or the two treatments combined in the presence or absence of TNFα (20 ng/ml) for 72 hours. (<b>A</b>) The MTT assay shows that spirulina alone or NT-020 alone increase proliferation; surprising, the in combination proliferation is decrease compare to control ** p<0.005(compare to media alone). Addition of 20 ng/ml human recombinant TNFα significantly decreased proliferation compare to media alone (***p<0.0001). Only the addition of spirulina alone was able to revert decrease in proliferation †††p<0.05 (compare to TNFα alone). (<b>B</b>) Spirulina and NT-020 alone significantly increased the number of BrdU<sup>+</sup> cells. When added together spirulina and NT-020 cause a significant decrease in proliferation ** p<0.005 ***p<0.0001 (compare to media alone). The addition of TNFα significantly decreased proliferation compare to media alone (***p<0.0001). Spirulina alone was able to prevent the decrease in the number of BrdU<sup>+</sup> cells. ††† p<0.0001 (compare to TNFα alone).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["increases", "proliferation", "neural", "cells", "protects"], "article_id"=>522114, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spirulina_increases_proliferation_of_human_neural_stem_cells_in_vitro_and_protects_against_a_TNF_insult_/522114", "title"=>"Spirulina increases proliferation of human neural stem cells <i>in vitro</i> and protects against a TNFα insult.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:35:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851213"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A–C</b>) shows a representative cluster of BrdU<sup>+</sup> cells in the SGZ confirming the cells are not microglia by the lack of colocalization with IBA-1. (<b>D–E</b>) shows a cluster of BrdU<sup>+</sup> cells in the LPS treated rats that are not microglia. (<b>G–I</b>) shows a BrdU<sup>+</sup> that does double label with the microglia marker IBA-1 as noted by the yellow color in the merged panel. (<b>J–K</b>) shows BrdU and IBA-1 staining in the Spirulina fed rats. Note, in this and all confocal images the side panels for each box are 90° rotations of the Z-stacks for confirmation of double labeling.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections", "brdu", "iba1"], "article_id"=>521652, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Orthogonal_projections_of_BrdU_IBA1_co_staining_/521652", "title"=>"Orthogonal projections of BrdU IBA1 co-staining.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:32:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851499"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) LPS caused a significant increase in the percentage of the dentate gyrus which was GFAP positive. The spirulina fed rats had a reduced GFAP response LPS compare to the control diet fed rats with LPS. *** p = 0.0002 (NIH-31 vs. NIH-31+LPS). ††† P = 0.0003 (NIH-31+LPS vs. spirulina+LPS). (<b>B</b>) There was no significant difference in the total number of GFAP<sup>+</sup> cells. (<b>C</b>) Representative photomicrograph of the GFAP immunohistochemical staining in the hippocampus. The white arrow points to the area shown in (<b>D</b>) at 20× magnification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rats", "astrocyte"], "article_id"=>521942, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spirulina_rats_have_a_decreased_astrocyte_response_to_LPS_/521942", "title"=>"Spirulina rats have a decreased astrocyte response to LPS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:34:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851370"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A–D</b>) Confocal images with orthogonal views demonstrate the absence of co-labeling of BrdU and GFAP in the 4 groups of animals examined. In the merged column you can observe co-localization of BrdU with DAPI as indicated by the purple. In constrast there is no colocalization of BrdU with GFP although the GFP labeled cells are closely associated with the BrdU positive cells. This supports our finding of no increased absolute numbers of GFAP labeled cells between any of the groups examined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections", "brdu", "gfap"], "article_id"=>521814, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>312, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Orthogonal_projections_of_BrdU_GFAP_co_staining_/521814", "title"=>"Orthogonal projections of BrdU GFAP co-staining.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:33:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851072"], "description"=>"<p>Low magnification confocal photomicrographs were used to determine if the BrdU was labeling non-neural cells. (<b>A–C</b>) In the control animals without LPS the majority of the BrdU cells were not found to be microglia. (<b>D–E</b>) In the control diet fed rats treated with LPS note that fewer BrdU cells were found and that many of the BrdU labeled cells were microglia. White arrow shown in high magnification in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496#pone-0010496-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3D–F</a> Yellow arrow shown in high magnification in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496#pone-0010496-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3G–I</a>. (<b>G–I</b>) In the spirulina fed rats the BrdU cells were not found to be microglia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microglia", "fed", "mice"], "article_id"=>521513, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BrdU_found_in_microglia_only_in_the_control_fed_mice_following_LPS_/521513", "title"=>"BrdU found in microglia only in the control fed mice following LPS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:32:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/851588"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) The effects of spirulina and NT-020 on the proliferation of human bone marrow cells was examined. Cells were plated in 96 well plates and spirulina at varying concentrations was added to the culture media. In a separate study shown in the same graph the highest dose of spirulina tested alone (125 ng/ml) was added to NT-020. After 72 hours in culture viability was tested using the MTT assay. Data is expressed at % over control, which are cells grown in media only. When spirulina is combined with NT-020 the effect is significantly higher than NT-020 alone was more than additive. (<b>B</b>) The effects of spirulina and NT-020 on the proliferation of human CD34<sup>+</sup> cells was examined. Cells were plated in 96 well plates and spirulina at varying doses was added to the culture media, in a separate study shown in the same graph the highest dose of spirulina tested alone (125 ng/ml) was added to NT-020. After 72 hours in culture viability was tested using the MTT assay. Data is expressed at % over control, which is cells grown in media only. When spirulina is combined with NT-020 the effect is significantly higher than NT-020 alone (p<0.05 students 2-tailed t-test) and the effect appears to be additive. ** p<0.001 ***p<0.0001 (compare to control). P<0.0001 (NT-020 vs. spirulina+NT-020).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["increases", "proliferation", "hematopoetic", "cells"], "article_id"=>522029, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spirulina_increases_proliferation_of_human_hematopoetic_stem_cells_in_vitro_/522029", "title"=>"Spirulina increases proliferation of human hematopoetic stem cells <i>in vitro</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:34:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850980"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Results of the Stereological counts of the number of BrdU<sup>+</sup> cells demonstrated that spirulina was able completely block the LPS induced decline in inflammation. *** p = 0.0049 (NIH-31 vs. NIH-31+LPS). ††† P = 0.0090 (NIH-31+LPS vs. spirulina+LPS). (<b>B</b>) Shows the representative BrdU staining in the rats without LPS. (<b>C</b>) After LPS in the rats fed the control diet there are fewer BrdU<sup>+</sup> cells. (<b>D</b>) In the spirulina fed rat LPS did not cause a decrease in proliferation. (All photomicrographs taken at 10× magnification).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["protects", "lps", "induced"], "article_id"=>521405, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Immunology"], "users"=>["Adam D. Bachstetter", "Jennifer Jernberg", "Andrea Schlunk", "Jennifer L. Vila", "Charles Hudson", "Michael J. Cole", "R. Douglas Shytle", "Jun Tan", "Paul R. Sanberg", "Cyndy D. Sanberg", "Cesario Borlongan", "Yuji Kaneko", "Naoki Tajiri", "Carmelina Gemma", "Paula C. Bickford"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spirulina_protects_against_LPS_induced_decrease_in_cell_proliferation_/521405", "title"=>"Spirulina protects against LPS induced decrease in cell proliferation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:31:29"}

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