Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols
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{"title"=>"Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John D.", "last_name"=>"Weete", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003787169"}, {"first_name"=>"Maritza", "last_name"=>"Abril", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604055591"}, {"first_name"=>"Meredith", "last_name"=>"Blackwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"55805239700"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20526375", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0010899", "sgr"=>"77956283840", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956283840", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"359515676"}, "id"=>"fc6455ec-73aa-32c6-bed5-0575a293f3b9", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the \"fungal sterol\" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5) sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5) sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade), and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28)-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol), and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles) target reactions in the synthesis of ergosterol. These findings also invalidate use of ergosterol as an indicator of biomass of certain fungal taxa (e.g., Glomeromycota). Data from this study are available from the Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFTOL) Structural and Biochemical Database: http://aftol.umn.edu.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/phylogenetic-distribution-fungal-sterols", "reader_count"=>127, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>27, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>80, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Chemistry"=>10, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>10}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>80}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Brazil"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/846971"], "description"=>"<p>Cholesterol, ergosterol (the primary sterol in many groups of fungi), 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, and brassicasterol and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, as major sterols reported in 175 fungal species across the kingdom Fungi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["predominant", "products", "sterol", "biosynthesis"], "article_id"=>517428, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John D. Weete", "Maritza Abril", "Meredith Blackwell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010899.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_of_the_five_predominant_end_products_of_sterol_biosynthesis_in_fungi_/517428", "title"=>"Diagram of the five predominant end products of sterol biosynthesis in fungi.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-28 02:03:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/421497"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ<sup>5</sup> sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Δ<sup>5</sup> sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade), and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28)-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in <em>Pneumocystis</em>.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol), and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles) target reactions in the synthesis of ergosterol. These findings also invalidate use of ergosterol as an indicator of biomass of certain fungal taxa (e.g., Glomeromycota). Data from this study are available from the Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFTOL) Structural and Biochemical Database: <a href=\"http://aftol.umn.edu\">http://aftol.umn.edu</a>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "fungal", "sterols"], "article_id"=>143251, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John D. Weete", "Maritza Abril", "Meredith Blackwell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010899", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Phylogenetic_Distribution_of_Fungal_Sterols/143251", "title"=>"Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-05-28 00:54:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/846843"], "description"=>"<p>The zygosporic fungi are indicated by flagellated cell diagrams and zygosporic fungi, by zygospore diagrams. Filled squares indicate the predominant sterol present within a terminal taxon (usually a phylum). Distinctive sterols are present in some clades within phyla: 1 Erysiphales; 2 <i>Tuber</i> and <i>Terfezia</i> also contain some ergosterol; 3 <i>Pneumocystis</i>; 4 <i>Schizosaccharomyces</i>; 5 <i>Taphrina</i> and <i>Protomyces</i>; 6 several core polypores; 7 Pucciniales; 8 one member of Mucorales reported to contain 22-dihydroergosterol; 9 several members of Mucorales contain episterol; 10 Kickxellales; 11 Most members of Entomophthorales contain 24-methyl cholesterol although several are known to have cholesterol or 24-methylene cholesterol or mixtures of 24-methyl cholesterol and 24-methylene cholesterol; 12 <i>Catenaria anguillulae</i>; 13 <i>Allomyces macrogynus</i>; 14 most species of Chytridiales tested; 15 <i>Rhizophydium sphaerotheca</i>; 16 only <i>Spizellomyces punctatum</i> sampled; 17 only <i>Monoblepharella</i> sp. sampled. Mesomycetozoa (Mendoza et al. 2002) is considered to be the sister group to fungi, and this group is poorly sampled. Note that many clades are undersampled or completely unsampled (see text for details).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "james", "et", "hibbett", "sterols"], "article_id"=>517299, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John D. Weete", "Maritza Abril", "Meredith Blackwell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010899.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>103, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fungal_phylogenetic_tree_based_on_James_et_al_2006_White_et_al_2006_and_Hibbett_et_al_2007_and_major_sterols_associated_with_each_taxon_/517299", "title"=>"Fungal phylogenetic tree based on James et al. (2006), White et al. (2006), and Hibbett et al. (2007), and major sterols associated with each taxon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-28 02:01:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/846749"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Cholesterol (B) Lanosterol (C) Brassicasterol (D) Ergosterol (E) 24-Ethyl cholesterol and (F) 24-Methyl cholesterol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fungal"], "article_id"=>517215, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["John D. Weete", "Maritza Abril", "Meredith Blackwell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010899.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structures_of_main_fungal_sterols_/517215", "title"=>"Structures of main fungal sterols.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-28 02:00:15"}

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Relative Metric

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