Effects of Enriched Physical and Social Environments on Motor Performance, Associative Learning, and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice
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{"title"=>"Effects of enriched physical and social environments on motor performance, associative learning, and hippocampal neurogenesis in mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Noelia", "last_name"=>"Madroñal", "scopus_author_id"=>"22980307600"}, {"first_name"=>"Cristina", "last_name"=>"López-Aracil", "scopus_author_id"=>"36239020700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alejandra", "last_name"=>"Rangel", "scopus_author_id"=>"24332952100"}, {"first_name"=>"José A.", "last_name"=>"del Río", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201580617"}, {"first_name"=>"José M.", "last_name"=>"Delgado-García", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005221472"}, {"first_name"=>"Agnès", "last_name"=>"Gruart", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004080075"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956194308", "pui"=>"359301695", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011130", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"77956194308", "pmid"=>"20559565"}, "id"=>"63ff9e12-84e0-3cf2-a222-e5ab812257e3", "abstract"=>"We have studied the motor abilities and associative learning capabilities of adult mice placed in different enriched environments. Three-month-old animals were maintained for a month alone (AL), alone in a physically enriched environment (PHY), and, finally, in groups in the absence (SO) or presence (SOPHY) of an enriched environment. The animals' capabilities were subsequently checked in the rotarod test, and for classical and instrumental learning. The PHY and SOPHY groups presented better performances in the rotarod test and in the acquisition of the instrumental learning task. In contrast, no significant differences between groups were observed for classical eyeblink conditioning. The four groups presented similar increases in the strength of field EPSPs (fEPSPs) evoked at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse across classical conditioning sessions, with no significant differences between groups. These trained animals were pulse-injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine hippocampal neurogenesis. No significant differences were found in the number of NeuN/BrdU double-labeled neurons. We repeated the same BrdU study in one-month-old mice raised for an additional month in the above-mentioned four different environments. These animals were not submitted to rotarod or conditioned tests. Non-trained PHY and SOPHY groups presented more neurogenesis than the other two groups. Thus, neurogenesis seems to be related to physical enrichment at early ages, but not to learning acquisition in adult mice.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-enriched-physical-social-environments-motor-performance-associative-learning-hippocampal-neu", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>2, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/844777"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Animals (n = 10 per group) were implanted with electromyographic (EMG) recording electrodes in the left orbicularis oculi (O.O.) muscle and with stimulating electrodes on the ipsilateral supraorbital nerve. Mice were also stimulated with tones delivered from a loudspeaker located 30 cm from the animal's head. As illustrated in the top diagram, animals were also implanted with stimulating (St.) and recording (Rec.) electrodes aimed to activate CA3-CA1 synapses of the contralateral hippocampus. (B) From top to bottom are illustrated the trace conditioning paradigm used in this study, and representative EMG and hippocampal records collected from the 10th conditioning session from a representative animal (AL group). For classical conditioning of eyelid responses, we used a tone (20 ms; 2.4 kHz; 85 dB) as conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electrical shock presented to the supraorbital nerve as unconditioned stimulus (US). The moment at which a single pulse (100 µs; square; biphasic) was presented to Schaffer collaterals is indicated by the arrow (St. Hipp.). Note the fEPSP evoked by the single pulse presented to Schaffer collaterals. (C) At the top are illustrated fEPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse, 300 ms after CS presentation, in a selected animal from each group, during the 2nd habituation (1) and during the 2nd (2) and 9th (3) conditioning sessions. The graphs at the bottom show the evolution of fEPSP slopes (mean ± s.e.m.) during the successive sessions for alone (AL, black circles), physical (PHY, black triangles), social (SO, black squares), and social-physical (SOPHY, black diamond) groups. There were no significant differences between groups (<i>P</i> = 0.198). In contrast, fEPSPs evoked during conditioning were significantly larger from the 4th session on for the AL (<i>P</i><0.001) and PHY (<i>P</i><0.001) groups, and from the 7th to the 10th sessions for the SO (<i>P</i><0.001) and SOPHY (<i>P</i><0.002) groups, as compared with values collected during the habituation sessions. (D) The graphs illustrate the evolution of the percentage (mean % ± s.e.m.) of conditioned responses during the successive sessions for the four groups. Although there were no significant differences between groups (<i>P</i> = 0.078), the percentage of conditioned responses was significantly larger from the 2nd to the 10th conditioning sessions for AL (<i>P</i><0.001) and PHY (<i>P</i><0.002) groups, and from the 5th to the 10th sessions for SO (<i>P</i><0.002) and SOPHY (<i>P</i><0.002) groups, as compared with values collected during habituation sessions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eyeblink", "conditioning", "carried"], "article_id"=>515231, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Noelia Madroñal", "Cristina López-Aracil", "Alejandra Rangel", "José A. del Río", "José M. Delgado-García", "Agnès Gruart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011130.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_analysis_of_the_classical_eyeblink_conditioning_test_carried_out_with_the_four_experimental_groups_/515231", "title"=>"Quantitative analysis of the classical eyeblink conditioning test carried out with the four experimental groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:57:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/844956"], "description"=>"<p>(A)-(D). Data collected from animals (n = 10) included in the alone (AL, A), physical (PHY, B), social (SO, C), and social-physical (SOPHY, D) groups. Each point represents the mean value collected from a single animal during the corresponding session. Data illustrated were collected from habituation (black triangles) and conditioning (white circles) sessions. Regression lines and their corresponding equations are included exclusively for coefficients of correlation (r>0.6). The significance (<i>P</i>) values for each regression analysis are always indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relationships", "fepsp", "slopes", "conditioned", "responses"], "article_id"=>515411, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Noelia Madroñal", "Cristina López-Aracil", "Alejandra Rangel", "José A. del Río", "José M. Delgado-García", "Agnès Gruart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011130.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_analysis_of_the_relationships_between_fEPSP_slopes_and_the_percentage_of_conditioned_responses_in_the_four_experimental_groups_/515411", "title"=>"Quantitative analysis of the relationships between fEPSP slopes and the percentage of conditioned responses in the four experimental groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:58:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/845112"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Following a training period (3–7 days) of shaping to the Skinner box, using a fixed-ratio (1∶1) schedule, animals (n = 10 per group) were presented with the fixed-interval (FI30s) schedule in which they could obtain a food pellet by pressing the lever just after each 30-second period. The graph illustrates a cumulative record from a representative animal per group collected from the 9th training session. The x axis indicates session duration (s), whilst the y axis indicates lever presses (responses). The angled bars under the cumulative traces indicate reinforcements. (B) Animal performance during the FI30s schedule was determined with the illustrated performance index (PI) equation (Gottlieb et al. 2006). In this equation, Ry represents lever presses during the second part of the 30-second period and Rx represent presses during the first part (see diagram). The equation was designed to penalize lever presses during the first part, as well as>1 lever press during the second part. (C) Performance indexes (PIs) for the four experimental groups analyzed during the last (10th) conditioning session. Note that although alone (AL) and social (SO) groups presented higher rates of lever presses, they presented significantly (<i>P</i>≤0.001) lower PI values than groups with enriched environments, placed either alone (PHY) or with littermates (SOPHY) in the home cages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["instrumental", "conditioning", "fixed-interval", "30", "carried"], "article_id"=>515564, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Noelia Madroñal", "Cristina López-Aracil", "Alejandra Rangel", "José A. del Río", "José M. Delgado-García", "Agnès Gruart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011130.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantitative_analysis_of_the_instrumental_conditioning_test_a_fixed_interval_schedule_30_s_carried_out_with_the_four_experimental_groups_/515564", "title"=>"Quantitative analysis of the instrumental conditioning test (a fixed-interval schedule, 30 s) carried out with the four experimental groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:59:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/845287"], "description"=>"<p>(A-L) Low-power photomicrographs illustrating BrdU-positive (A-D) and double-labeled BrdU/NeuN-positive cells (E-L) 20 days after the accumulative BrdU labeling in AL-n (A,E,I), PHY-n (B,F,J), SO-n (C,G,K), and SOPHY-n (D,H,L) groups. Notice the increased number of BrdU- and double-labeled cells in the SOPHY-n and PHY-n groups. A higher magnification of BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus of each experimental group is shown in I-L. (N) Example of a double-labeled cell in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of a mouse from the SOPHY-n group. The X and Y orthogonal projections of the photomicrograph are displayed (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011130#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Material and Methods</a> for details). (O-P) Histograms showing the number (mean ± s.e.m.) of BrdU-positive cells (O) and double-labeled cells (BrdU-NeuN) in the SGZ + GL of the dentate gyrus in experimental groups. Asterisks indicate statistical differences between groups. (<i>P</i>≤0.001; ANOVA). Abbreviations: GL, granule cell layer; H, Hilus; ML, molecular layer. Scale bars: A = 200 µm pertains to B-H; I = 100 µm pertains to J-L, N = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proliferation", "neurogenesis", "dentate", "gyrus"], "article_id"=>515741, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Noelia Madroñal", "Cristina López-Aracil", "Alejandra Rangel", "José A. del Río", "José M. Delgado-García", "Agnès Gruart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011130.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_cell_proliferation_and_neurogenesis_in_the_dentate_gyrus_of_experimental_groups_/515741", "title"=>"Analysis of cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of experimental groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/844669"], "description"=>"<p>At the top is illustrated a diagram of the accelerating rotarod treadmill. The bars in the bottom diagram show the percentage (mean ± s.e.m.) of animals that reached criterion for the first experimental session. Note that performance for the two (physical, PHY, and social-physical, SOPHY) groups having an enriched environment presented significantly (*, <i>P</i><0.001) larger values than for the other two (alone, AL, and social, SO) groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["animals", "reached", "criterion", "accelerating"], "article_id"=>515119, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Noelia Madroñal", "Cristina López-Aracil", "Alejandra Rangel", "José A. del Río", "José M. Delgado-García", "Agnès Gruart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011130.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_animals_from_each_experimental_group_that_reached_criterion_on_the_accelerating_rotarod_/515119", "title"=>"Percentage of animals from each experimental group that reached criterion on the accelerating rotarod.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:57:10"}

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