Receptor Specificity and Transmission of H2N2 Subtype Viruses Isolated from the Pandemic of 1957
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{"title"=>"Receptor specificity and transmission of H2N2 subtype viruses isolated from the pandemic of 1957", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Claudia", "last_name"=>"Pappas", "scopus_author_id"=>"23970967500"}, {"first_name"=>"Karthik", "last_name"=>"Viswanathan", "scopus_author_id"=>"36977247200"}, {"first_name"=>"Aarthi", "last_name"=>"Chandrasekaran", "scopus_author_id"=>"14524085600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rahul", "last_name"=>"Raman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102586763"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacqueline M.", "last_name"=>"Katz", "scopus_author_id"=>"57034685500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ram", "last_name"=>"Sasisekharan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006354867"}, {"first_name"=>"Terrence M.", "last_name"=>"Tumpey", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701520653"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20574518", "sgr"=>"77955293563", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011158", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955293563", "pui"=>"359301746", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"059196ce-d060-3391-8cad-3c14b7fbd4d2", "abstract"=>"Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 strains from swine and avian species coupled with waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin (HA) warrants investigation of this subtype due to its pandemic potential. In this study we examined the transmissibility of representative human H2N2 viruses, A/Albany/6/58 (Alb/58) and A/El Salvador/2/57 (ElSalv/57), isolated during the 1957/58 pandemic, in the ferret model. The receptor binding properties of these H2N2 viruses was analyzed using dose-dependent direct glycan array-binding assays. Alb/58 virus, which contains the 226L/228S amino acid combination in the HA and displayed dual binding to both alpha 2,6 and alpha 2,3 glycan receptors, transmitted efficiently to naïve ferrets by respiratory droplets. Inefficient transmission was observed with ElSalv/57 virus, which contains the 226Q/228G amino acid combination and preferentially binds alpha 2,3 over alpha 2,6 glycan receptors. However, a unique transmission event with the ElSalv/57 virus occurred which produced a 226L/228G H2N2 natural variant virus that displayed an increase in binding specificity to alpha 2,6 glycan receptors and enhanced respiratory droplet transmissibility. Our studies provide a correlation between binding affinity to glycan receptors with terminal alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid and the efficiency of respiratory droplet transmission for pandemic H2N2 influenza viruses.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/receptor-specificity-transmission-h2n2-subtype-viruses-isolated-pandemic-1957", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Korea"=>1, "United States"=>1, "China"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420327", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420355", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/420374"], "description"=>"<div><p>Influenza viruses of the H2N2 subtype have not circulated among humans in over 40 years. The occasional isolation of avian H2 strains from swine and avian species coupled with waning population immunity to H2 hemagglutinin (HA) warrants investigation of this subtype due to its pandemic potential. In this study we examined the transmissibility of representative human H2N2 viruses, A/Albany/6/58 (Alb/58) and A/El Salvador/2/57 (ElSalv/57), isolated during the 1957/58 pandemic, in the ferret model. The receptor binding properties of these H2N2 viruses was analyzed using dose-dependent direct glycan array-binding assays. Alb/58 virus, which contains the 226L/228S amino acid combination in the HA and displayed dual binding to both alpha 2,6 and alpha 2,3 glycan receptors, transmitted efficiently to naïve ferrets by respiratory droplets. Inefficient transmission was observed with ElSalv/57 virus, which contains the 226Q/228G amino acid combination and preferentially binds alpha 2,3 over alpha 2,6 glycan receptors. However, a unique transmission event with the ElSalv/57 virus occurred which produced a 226L/228G H2N2 natural variant virus that displayed an increase in binding specificity to alpha 2,6 glycan receptors and enhanced respiratory droplet transmissibility. Our studies provide a correlation between binding affinity to glycan receptors with terminal alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid and the efficiency of respiratory droplet transmission for pandemic H2N2 influenza viruses.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["receptor", "specificity", "h2n2", "subtype", "viruses", "pandemic", "1957"], "article_id"=>142975, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Receptor_Specificity_and_Transmission_of_H2N2_Subtype_Viruses_Isolated_from_the_Pandemic_of_1957/142975", "title"=>"Receptor Specificity and Transmission of H2N2 Subtype Viruses Isolated from the Pandemic of 1957", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 00:49:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843242"], "description"=>"<p>For each experiment, three ferrets were inoculated intranasally (i.n.) with 10<sup>6</sup> EID<sub>50</sub> of Mallard/78 virus and placed in individual cages. <b>A</b>: Twenty four hours later, one naïve ferret was housed in a cage adjacent to each of the cages containing an inoculated ferret (respiratory droplet transmission), separated by perforated walls to allow the exchange of respiratory droplets. <b>B</b>: For direct transmission experiments, one naïve ferret was housed in the same cage with the inoculated ferret. Nasal wash samples were collected from the inoculated and contact ferrets on alternating days and titered in eggs. Bars with the same color represent an inoculated/contact ferret pair. The limit of virus detection was 10<sup>1.5</sup> EID<sub>50</sub>/ml.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["droplet", "experiments", "avian", "h2n2"], "article_id"=>513692, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Respiratory_droplet_and_direct_contact_transmission_experiments_using_avian_H2N2_virus_/513692", "title"=>"Respiratory droplet and direct contact transmission experiments using avian H2N2 virus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:01:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843376"], "description"=>"<p>For each experiment, three ferrets were inoculated i.n. with 10<sup>6</sup> EID<sub>50</sub> of Albany/58, El Salv/57 or El Salv/57-Q226L mutant. Each ferret was placed in individual cages. <b>A, C and E</b>: Twenty four hours later, one naïve ferret was housed in a cage adjacent to each of the cages containing an inoculated ferret (respiratory droplet transmission), separated by perforated walls to allow the exchange of respiratory droplets. <b>B and D</b>: For direct transmission experiments, one naïve ferret was housed in the same cage with the inoculated ferret. Nasal wash samples were collected from the inoculated and contact ferrets on alternating days and titered by EID<sub>50</sub>. Bars with the same color represent an inoculated/contact ferret pair. The limit of virus detection was 10<sup>1.5</sup> EID<sub>50</sub>/ml. †, ferret found dead on day 8 p.i.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["droplet", "experiments", "h2n2"], "article_id"=>513835, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Respiratory_droplet_and_direct_contact_transmission_experiments_using_human_H2N2_viruses_/513835", "title"=>"Respiratory droplet and direct contact transmission experiments using human H2N2 viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:03:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843488"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Stereo view of homology based structural model of Alb/58 HA complexed with α2,6 oligosaccharide. This model was constructed using a representative human H2N2 HA – α2,6 receptor co-crystal structure (PDB ID: 2WR7) as template. The optimal contact between the critical Leu226 with the C6 atom of SA α2,6-linked to Gal motif is shown with dashed line. <b>B</b>, Stereo view of homology based structural model of ElSalv/57 HA complexed with α2,6 oligosaccharide. This model was constructed using an avian-like H2N2 HA (PDB ID: 3KU3) as template. The main differences in contacts between A and B are in positions 226 and 228 that make contacts with SA α2,6-linked to the penultimate Gal and in 156 position that makes contacts with additional sugars at the reducing end of penultimate Gal. The sugar is shown as a stick representation colored by atom (carbon in <i>orange</i>, oxygen in <i>red</i> and nitrogen in <i>blue</i>). The homology based structural models were constructed as described previously <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158#pone.0011158-Srinivasan1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["h2n2", "viruses"], "article_id"=>513944, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_model_of_human_H2N2_viruses_with_945_2_6_receptor_/513944", "title"=>"Structural model of human H2N2 viruses with α2,6 receptor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:05:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843648"], "description"=>"<p>The binding signals are expressed as percentage of maximum binding of each virus to the glycan arrays. At saturating HA titers, both Alb/58 and A/El Salv/57-Q226L showed binding signals to long and short α2-6 glycans, but Alb/58 also showed high binding signals to long and short α2-3 glycans. ElSalv/57 virus showed binding affinity to all three types of α2-3 glycans but also displayed some binding to long α2-6 glycans at higher titers. The types of glycans used on the arrays are described (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158#pone.0011158.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binding"], "article_id"=>514103, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Glycan_binding_of_Alb_58_ElSalv_57_and_A_El_Salv_57_Q226L_viruses_/514103", "title"=>"Glycan binding of Alb/58, ElSalv/57, and A/El Salv/57-Q226L viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:08:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843739"], "description"=>"<p>RD, respiratory droplet; DC, direct contact transmission; ND, not determined.</p>π<p>This experiment was performed using virus that was obtained from plaque purification and grown in MDCK cells.</p>¶<p>These experiments were done independently from the first one, using virus that was grown in allantoic fluid of 10-day old embryonated eggs.</p><p>*The percentage corresponds to the ferrets that exhibited highest drop in weight during the experiment.</p><p>** Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer is shown. Performed with homologous virus and turkey red blood cells.</p><p>*** The lack of seroconversion in one of the ferrets is explained by the short window span between late peak of virus detection and sera sample collection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ferrets", "inoculated", "h2n2"], "article_id"=>514191, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_signs_virus_replication_seroconversion_and_transmission_in_ferrets_inoculated_with_H2N2_viruses_/514191", "title"=>"Clinical signs, virus replication, seroconversion, and transmission in ferrets inoculated with H2N2 viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:09:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843791"], "description"=>"<p>* No detectable ElSalv/57 virus was isolated from nasal washes (day 6 p.i.) during a respiratory droplet transmission experiment.</p><p>** Refers to the number of plaque purified viruses containing that specific codon in relation to the number of numbers of plaque purified viruses that were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing.</p>¶<p>Same results were obtained in the nasal wash samples collected on day 4 p.i.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amino", "acids", "receptor", "binding", "plaque", "purified", "viruses", "ferret", "nasal"], "article_id"=>514234, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composition_of_amino_acids_responsible_for_receptor_binding_among_plaque_purified_viruses_obtained_from_ferret_nasal_washes_/514234", "title"=>"Composition of amino acids responsible for receptor binding among plaque purified viruses obtained from ferret nasal washes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:10:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843836"], "description"=>"<p>Consensus sequences from human H2N2 viruses that circulated during pandemic, H2N2 avian viruses and from the viruses used in this study.</p><p>*More than one amino acid is shown in cases where the proportion of viruses containing it was higher than 30%.</p><p>**Receptor binding amino acids 226Q228G and 226Q228S could be found in the viruses that circulated during this period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hemagglutinin", "receptor", "binding", "amino", "acids", "residues"], "article_id"=>514285, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "users"=>["Claudia Pappas", "Karthik Viswanathan", "Aarthi Chandrasekaran", "Rahul Raman", "Jacqueline M. Katz", "Ram Sasisekharan", "Terrence M. Tumpey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011158.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Composition_of_the_hemagglutinin_receptor_binding_amino_acids_and_residues_that_interact_with_945_2_3_and_945_2_6_glycans_/514285", "title"=>"Composition of the hemagglutinin receptor binding amino acids and residues that interact with α2-3 and α2-6 glycans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-06-21 01:11:25"}

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