Arboreal Ants Use the “Velcro® Principle” to Capture Very Large Prey
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{"title"=>"Arboreal ants use the ''velcroh principle'' to capture very large prey", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Dejean", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102263144"}, {"first_name"=>"Céline", "last_name"=>"Leroy", "scopus_author_id"=>"14522836600"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Corbara", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701685826"}, {"first_name"=>"Olivier", "last_name"=>"Roux", "scopus_author_id"=>"13605419800"}, {"first_name"=>"Régis", "last_name"=>"Céréghino", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603814620"}, {"first_name"=>"Jérôme", "last_name"=>"Orivel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004209654"}, {"first_name"=>"Raphaël", "last_name"=>"Boulay", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003335880"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359306438", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011331", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955341411", "pmid"=>"20593032", "sgr"=>"77955341411"}, "id"=>"4154b321-6e10-3a02-90ac-355e224f5d6c", "abstract"=>"Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as \"myrmecophytes\" that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant Azteca andreae which is associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia obtusa. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for C. obtusa. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the A. andreae workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/arboreal-ants-velcroh-principle-capture-very-large-prey", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>44}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/419953"], "description"=>"<div><p>Plant-ants live in a mutualistic association with host plants known as “myrmecophytes” that provide them with a nesting place and sometimes with extra-floral nectar (EFN) and/or food bodies (FBs); the ants can also attend sap-sucking Hemiptera for their honeydew. In return, plant-ants, like most other arboreal ants, protect their host plants from defoliators. To satisfy their nitrogen requirements, however, some have optimized their ability to capture prey in the restricted environment represented by the crowns of trees by using elaborate hunting techniques. In this study, we investigated the predatory behavior of the ant <em>Azteca andreae</em> which is associated with the myrmecophyte <em>Cecropia obtusa</em>. We noted that up to 8350 ant workers per tree hide side-by-side beneath the leaf margins of their host plant with their mandibles open, waiting for insects to alight. The latter are immediately seized by their extremities, and then spread-eagled; nestmates are recruited to help stretch, carve up and transport prey. This group ambush hunting technique is particularly effective when the underside of the leaves is downy, as is the case for <em>C. obtusa</em>. In this case, the hook-shaped claws of the <em>A. andreae</em> workers and the velvet-like structure of the underside of the leaves combine to act like natural Velcro® that is reinforced by the group ambush strategy of the workers, allowing them to capture prey of up to 13,350 times the mean weight of a single worker.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["arboreal", "ants", "prey"], "article_id"=>142928, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Arboreal_Ants_Use_the_Velcro_Principle_to_Capture_Very_Large_Prey/142928", "title"=>"Arboreal Ants Use the “Velcro® Principle” to Capture Very Large Prey", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 00:48:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843399"], "description"=>"<p>The tests consisted in dropping 1 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.5 cm and 3.5-cm-long nymphs of the locust species <i>Tropidacris collaris</i> onto the upper surface of <i>C. obtusa</i>, <i>C. palmata</i> or <i>V. latifolia</i> leaves where groups of 12–15 <i>A. andreae</i> workers were hunting. These prey were dropped from ca. 5 cm in height at ca. 2.5 cm from the leaf margins.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locust", "nymphs", "classes"], "article_id"=>513857, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Capture_of_locust_nymphs_from_four_size_classes_on_Cecropia_obtusa_C_palmata_and_Vismia_latifolia_/513857", "title"=>"Capture of locust nymphs from four size classes on <i>Cecropia obtusa</i>, <i>C. palmata</i> and <i>Vismia latifolia</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 01:04:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843274"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scanning electron micrograph of the hook-shaped claws of <i>A. andreae</i> workers. (B-C) Photomicrographs of unstained, 50 µm sections of <i>Cecropia obtusa</i> (B) and <i>C. palmata</i> (C); the upper side of the lamina is on the top. D-G- Scanning electron micrographs of the upper side (D–E) and underside (F–G) of the lamina of <i>C. obtusa</i> (D–F) and <i>C. palmata</i> (E–G). Long, thin trichomes characterize the underside of the leaves of both species, but with major differences in densities; whereas the upper surface of the leaves has short, wide trichomes – here, too, at different densities. Scale bars, 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hook-and-loop", "permitting", "workers"], "article_id"=>513730, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_hook_and_loop_system_permitting_Azteca_andreae_workers_to_catch_large_prey_/513730", "title"=>"The hook-and-loop system permitting <i>Azteca andreae</i> workers to catch large prey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 01:02:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/842766"], "description"=>"<p>(A) A carton nest on a <i>Cecropia obtusa</i>. (B) Underside of a young <i>C. obtusa</i> leaf with numerous ambushing <i>A. andreae</i> workers placed side-by-side along the leaf margin. A black hymenoptera is spread-eagled near the principal vein. (C) A sphingid moth was captured during the night and was still struggling when we photographed it in the morning. (D) Detail of the position of ambushing workers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ambush"], "article_id"=>513220, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carton_Azteca_andreae_nest_and_group_ambush_technique_/513220", "title"=>"Carton <i>Azteca andreae</i> nest and group ambush technique.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 00:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843113"], "description"=>"<p>(A) From the upper side and the underside of <i>C. obtusa</i> leaves, and from a sheet of supple plastic (Kruskal-Wallis test for 0.75 g: H<sub>3,300</sub> = 12.4; P = 0.002; for 0.125 g and 0.250 g: H<sub>3,300</sub> = 74; P<0.0001; Dunn's <i>post hoc</i> test for multiple comparisons: different letters indicate significant differences at P<0.01). (B) From the underside of <i>C. obtusa vs. C. palmata</i> leaves (Wilcoxon signed rank test: Z = 2.37; P<0.02).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cases", "workers"], "article_id"=>513573, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentages_of_cases_when_hunting_Azteca_andreae_workers_are_able_to_hold_onto_different_weights_/513573", "title"=>"Percentages of cases when hunting <i>Azteca andreae</i> workers are able to hold onto different weights.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 00:59:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843492"], "description"=>"<p>Different captured prey, their weight (or mean weight ± SE) and the ratio with the mean weight of a hunting worker (ca. 0.0014 g).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["captured"], "article_id"=>513953, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_captured_prey_their_weight_or_mean_weight_177_SE_and_the_ratio_with_the_mean_weight_of_a_hunting_worker_ca_0_0014_g_/513953", "title"=>"Different captured prey, their weight (or mean weight ± SE) and the ratio with the mean weight of a hunting worker (ca. 0.0014 g).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 01:05:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/843014"], "description"=>"<p>(A) To evaluate the number of <i>Azteca andreae</i> workers per centimeter of leaf margin, we took pictures of the workers ambushing from beneath the <i>Cecropia obtusa</i> leaves while cautiously placing a ruler 1–2 cm away from the leaf margin so as not to perturb them. (B) To evaluate the strength of the workers, we used different weights glued to pieces of thread and placed the free end of the thread near an ambushing major worker. Here, three <i>Azteca andreae</i> workers are biting the end of a piece of thread glued to a 10-cent Euro coin; only one (arrow) is really holding onto the coin (4.11 g).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["techniques"], "article_id"=>513467, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alain Dejean", "Céline Leroy", "Bruno Corbara", "Olivier Roux", "Régis Céréghino", "Jérôme Orivel", "Raphaël Boulay"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011331.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_the_techniques_used_/513467", "title"=>"Illustration of the techniques used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-06-25 00:57:47"}

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Relative Metric

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