Transgene × Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840364"], "description"=>"<p>White bars  =  offspring pair 1, light grey  =  offspring pair 2, dark grey  =  offspring pair 3, black bars  =  offspring pair 4. Within each pair, the bar to the left shows control line and the bar to the right shows the corresponding GM line. Error bars represent ±1 standard error (back-transformed from cube root scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ergot", "infected", "seeds", "gm", "plants"], "article_id"=>510816, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Simon L. Zeller", "Olena Kalinina", "Susanne Brunner", "Beat Keller", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_ergot_infected_seeds_in_GM_and_control_plants_in_the_field_/510816", "title"=>"Percentage of ergot infected seeds in GM and control plants in the field.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-12 00:13:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840189"], "description"=>"<p>The mildew infection equals the proportion of pots with strong powdery mildew infection up to flag leaves. Phenological stage, plant height, vegetative mass, seed number and seed yield were measured to assess the plant performance. A: mean of four lines (Control  =  S3b#1–4; GM  =  Pm3b#1–4) at different soil nutrient levels (circles  =  high fertilizer, squares  =  medium fertilizer, triangles  =  no additional fertilizer); significant transgene × fertilizer environment interactions indicated by asterisks (vegetative mass: <i>P</i> = 0.035, seed number: <i>P</i><0.001, seed yield: <i>P</i><0.001); light grey lines were drawn to make these interactions visible; error bars represent ±1 standard error (back-transformed, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>) and are sometimes hidden behind the symbols. B: proportional difference between GM and control plants for each of the four offspring lines but averaged across nutrient levels (white bars  =  offspring pair 1 (Pm3b#1 <i>vs.</i> S3b#1), light grey  =  offspring pair 2, dark gray  =  offspring pair 3, black bars  =  offspring pair 4); x-axis log-scale with original values (100 * GM/control); bars extending to the right from the vertical zero line indicate higher values in GM than in control plants; significant GM/control x offspring pair interactions indicated by asterisks (* <i>P</i><0.05; ***<i>P</i><0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transgene", "glasshouse", "mildew"], "article_id"=>510641, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Simon L. Zeller", "Olena Kalinina", "Susanne Brunner", "Beat Keller", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_the_transgene_in_the_glasshouse_on_mildew_infection_and_plant_performance_traits_/510641", "title"=>"Effects of the transgene in the glasshouse on mildew infection and plant performance traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-12 00:10:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/418779", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/418822", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/418860", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/418900"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) plants.</p><h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>We studied transgenic bread wheat <em>Triticum aestivum</em> lines expressing the wheat <em>Pm3b</em> gene against the fungus powdery mildew <em>Blumeria graminis</em> f.sp. <em>tritici</em>. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results.</p><p>The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease <em>Claviceps purpurea</em> compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transgene", "interactions", "genetically", "modified"], "article_id"=>142693, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Simon L. Zeller", "Olena Kalinina", "Susanne Brunner", "Beat Keller", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transgene_Environment_Interactions_in_Genetically_Modified_Wheat/142693", "title"=>"Transgene × Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-07-12 00:44:53"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840098"], "description"=>"<p>Example of significant transgene × environment (presence/absence of powdery mildew) interaction in GM spring wheat in a glasshouse experiment. GM plants (circles  =  <i>Pm3b</i>#1 to #4) have higher yield than control plants (squares  =  S3b#1–4) in the presence but lower yield in the absence of mildew (fungicide spraying); light grey lines were drawn to make interactions between transgene and environments visible; error bars represent ±1 standard error (back-transformed from square root scale).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mildew", "fungicide", "spraying", "yields", "gm"], "article_id"=>510550, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Simon L. Zeller", "Olena Kalinina", "Susanne Brunner", "Beat Keller", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_mildew_infection_and_fungicide_spraying_on_yields_of_GM_wheat_lines_/510550", "title"=>"Effects of mildew infection and fungicide spraying on yields of GM wheat lines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-12 00:09:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840277"], "description"=>"<p>The mildew infection equals the proportion of pots with strong powdery mildew infection up to flag leaves. Phenological stage, plant height, vegetative mass, seed number and seed yield were measured to assess the plant performance. A: mean of four lines at different soil nutrient levels (circles  =  additional fertilizer, squares  =  no fertilizer); transgene × fertilizer environment interactions were never significant; light grey lines were drawn to make this visible; error bars represent ±1 standard error (back-transformed, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405#s2\" target=\"_blank\">methods</a>). B: proportional difference between GM and control plants for each of the four offspring lines but averaged across nutrient levels (white bars  =  offspring pair 1 (Pm3b#1 <i>vs.</i> S3b#1), light grey  =  offspring pair 2, dark gray  =  offspring pair 3, black bars  =  offspring pair 4); x-axis log-scale with original values (100 * GM/control); bars extending to the right from the vertical zero line indicate higher values in GM than in control plants; significant GM/control x offspring pair interactions indicated by asterisks (* <i>P</i><0.05; ** <i>P</i><0.01; ***<i>P</i><0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transgene", "mildew"], "article_id"=>510733, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Simon L. Zeller", "Olena Kalinina", "Susanne Brunner", "Beat Keller", "Bernhard Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011405.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_the_transgene_in_the_field_on_mildew_infection_and_plant_performance_traits_/510733", "title"=>"Effects of the transgene in the field on mildew infection and plant performance traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-12 00:12:13"}

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