Radiographs Reveal Exceptional Forelimb Strength in the Sabertooth Cat, Smilodon fatalis
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Radiographs reveal exceptional forelimb strength in the sabertooth cat, Smilodon fatalis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julie A.", "last_name"=>"Meachen-Samuels", "scopus_author_id"=>"26429723400"}, {"first_name"=>"Blaire", "last_name"=>"van Valkenburgh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004363408"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20625398", "sgr"=>"77955406782", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011412", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955406782", "pui"=>"359318677", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"06fca068-76fc-31ba-87d0-45253d1e5d5f", "abstract"=>"Background: The sabertooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, was an enigmatic predator without a true living analog. Their elongate canine teeth were more vulnerable to fracture than those of modern felids, making it imperative for them to immobilize prey with their forelimbs when making a kill. As a result, their need for heavily muscled forelimbs likely exceeded that of modern felids and thus should be reflected in their skeletons. Previous studies on forelimb bones of S. fatalis found them to be relatively robust but did not quantify their ability to withstand loading. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using radiographs of the sabertooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, 28 extant felid species, and the larger, extinct American lion Panthera atrox, we measured cross-sectional properties of the humerus and femur to provide the first estimates of limb bone strength in bending and torsion. We found that the humeri of Smilodon were reinforced by cortical thickening to a greater degree than those observed in any living felid, or the much larger P. atrox. The femur of Smilodon also was thickened but not beyond the normal variation found in any other felid measured. Conclusions/Significance: Based on the cross-sectional properties of its humerus, we interpret that Smilodon was a powerful predator that differed from extant felids in its greater ability to subdue prey using the forelimbs. This enhanced forelimb strength was part of an adaptive complex driven by the need to minimize the struggles of prey in order to protect the elongate canines from fracture and position the bite for a quick kill.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/radiographs-reveal-exceptional-forelimb-strength-sabertooth-cat-smilodon-fatalis", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>11}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/419220"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The sabertooth cat, <em>Smilodon fatalis</em>, was an enigmatic predator without a true living analog. Their elongate canine teeth were more vulnerable to fracture than those of modern felids, making it imperative for them to immobilize prey with their forelimbs when making a kill. As a result, their need for heavily muscled forelimbs likely exceeded that of modern felids and thus should be reflected in their skeletons. Previous studies on forelimb bones of <em>S. fatalis</em> found them to be relatively robust but did not quantify their ability to withstand loading.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Using radiographs of the sabertooth cat, <em>Smilodon fatalis</em>, 28 extant felid species, and the larger, extinct American lion <em>Panthera atrox</em>, we measured cross-sectional properties of the humerus and femur to provide the first estimates of limb bone strength in bending and torsion. We found that the humeri of <em>Smilodon</em> were reinforced by cortical thickening to a greater degree than those observed in any living felid, or the much larger <em>P. atrox</em>. The femur of <em>Smilodon</em> also was thickened but not beyond the normal variation found in any other felid measured.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Based on the cross-sectional properties of its humerus, we interpret that <em>Smilodon</em> was a powerful predator that differed from extant felids in its greater ability to subdue prey using the forelimbs. This enhanced forelimb strength was part of an adaptive complex driven by the need to minimize the struggles of prey in order to protect the elongate canines from fracture and position the bite for a quick kill.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["radiographs", "exceptional", "forelimb", "sabertooth"], "article_id"=>142792, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julie A. Meachen-Samuels", "Blaire Van Valkenburgh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Radiographs_Reveal_Exceptional_Forelimb_Strength_in_the_Sabertooth_Cat_Smilodon_fatalis_/142792", "title"=>"Radiographs Reveal Exceptional Forelimb Strength in the Sabertooth Cat, <em>Smilodon fatalis</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-02 00:46:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/842012"], "description"=>"<p>Log<sub>10</sub>/log<sub>10</sub> regressions of a) humerus I<sub>x</sub>; b) humerus I<sub>y</sub>; c) humerus J/2 against humerus length; and d) femur J/2 against femur length. <i>S. fatalis</i> was not included in regression calculations. Confidence intervals (95%) were based on individual species. Regression statistics are in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412#pone-0011412-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. PAT = <i>Panthera atrox</i>, SFA = <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412#pone.0011412.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> for extant species numbers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humerus", "femur", "cortical"], "article_id"=>512480, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julie A. Meachen-Samuels", "Blaire Van Valkenburgh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regressions_of_humerus_and_femur_cortical_measurements_against_lengths_/512480", "title"=>"Regressions of humerus and femur cortical measurements against lengths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-02 00:41:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/842095"], "description"=>"<p>Jaguar humerus USNM 49393 taken in the a) craniocaudal and b) mediolateral plane, and of <i>Smilodon fatalis</i> humerus LACMHC K-762 in c) craniocaudal and d) mediolateral plane. White bars indicate subperiosteal diameter and black bars indicate endosteal diameter. Between each view is a cross-sectional representation of each bone, “<i>Cr</i>” represents the cranial face of the cross-section.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["images"], "article_id"=>512565, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julie A. Meachen-Samuels", "Blaire Van Valkenburgh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Radiographic_images_of_jaguar_Panthera_onca_and_Smilodon_fatalis_humeri_/512565", "title"=>"Radiographic images of jaguar, <i>Panthera onca</i>, and <i>Smilodon fatalis</i> humeri.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-02 00:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/842198"], "description"=>"<p>(SEE, standard error of the estimate. <i>S. fatalis</i> was not included in any regression equations.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "humeral", "femoral", "cortical", "variables", "respective"], "article_id"=>512653, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julie A. Meachen-Samuels", "Blaire Van Valkenburgh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_coefficients_of_log_10_humeral_or_femoral_cortical_variables_against_the_respective_log_10_bone_humerus_or_femur_length_/512653", "title"=>"Regression coefficients of log<sub>10</sub> humeral or femoral cortical variables against the respective log<sub>10</sub> bone (humerus or femur) length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-02 00:44:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/842222"], "description"=>"1<p>(Pantherins include <i>P. atrox</i>, <i>P. leo</i>, <i>P. tigris</i>, <i>P. onca</i>, <i>P. pardus</i> and <i>P. uncia</i>.</p><p>(*) indicates a significant difference between <i>S. fatalis</i> and pantherins or between <i>S. fatalis</i> and all other cats in a Mann-Whitney U-test (p<0.05).)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cats", "sampled"], "article_id"=>512683, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Julie A. Meachen-Samuels", "Blaire Van Valkenburgh"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011412.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_values_for_K_craniocaudal_K_mediolateral_CA_and_J_2_for_Smilodon_fatalis_all_other_cats_sampled_in_this_study_including_pantherins_and_only_large_pantherins_1_/512683", "title"=>"Mean (+/− SD) values for K craniocaudal, K mediolateral, CA, and J/2 for <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>, all other cats sampled in this study (including pantherins), and only large pantherins<sup>1</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-02 00:44:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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