Potential Benefits, Limitations and Target Product-Profiles of Odor-Baited Mosquito Traps for Malaria Control in Africa
Publication Date
July 14, 2010
Journal
PLoS ONE
Authors
Fredros O. Okumu, Nicodem J. Govella, Sarah J. Moore, Nakul Chitnis, et al
Volume
5
Issue
7
Pages
e11573
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011573
Web of Science
000279884900013
Scopus
77955403167
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/potential-benefits-limitations-target-productprofiles-odorbaited-mosquito-traps-malaria-control-afri
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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/418578"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Traps baited with synthetic human odors have been proposed as suitable technologies for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the potential benefits of such traps for preventing malaria transmission in Africa and the essential characteristics that they should possess so as to be effective.</p><h3>Methods and Principal Findings</h3><p>An existing mathematical model was reformulated to distinguish availability of hosts for attack by mosquitoes from availability of blood <em>per se</em>. This adaptation allowed the effects of pseudo-hosts such as odor-baited mosquito traps, which do not yield blood but which can nonetheless be attacked by the mosquitoes, to be simulated considering communities consisting of users and non-users of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), currently the primary malaria prevention method. We determined that malaria transmission declines as trap coverage (proportion of total availability of all hosts and pseudo hosts that traps constitute) increases. If the traps are more attractive than humans and are located in areas where mosquitoes are most abundant, 20–130 traps per 1000 people would be sufficient to match the impact of 50% community-wide ITN coverage. If such traps are used to complement ITNs, malaria transmission can be reduced by 99% or more in most scenarios representative of Africa. However, to match cost-effectiveness of ITNs, the traps delivery, operation and maintenance would have to cost a maximum of US$4.25 to 27.61 per unit per year.</p><h3>Conclusions and Significance</h3><p>Odor-baited mosquito traps might potentially be effective and affordable tools for malaria control in Africa, particularly if they are used to complement, rather than replace, existing methods. We recommend that developers should focus on super-attractive baits and cheaper traps to enhance cost-effectiveness, and that the most appropriate way to deploy such technologies is through vertical delivery mechanisms.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["limitations", "product-profiles", "odor-baited", "mosquito", "traps", "malaria", "africa"], "article_id"=>142656, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Physics", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Potential_Benefits_Limitations_and_Target_Product_Profiles_of_Odor_Baited_Mosquito_Traps_for_Malaria_Control_in_Africa/142656", "title"=>"Potential Benefits, Limitations and Target Product-Profiles of Odor-Baited Mosquito Traps for Malaria Control in Africa", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:44:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840409"], "description"=>"<p>This figure shows behavioral and mortality processes that occur in a mosquito feeding cycle. The host-seeking process includes <i>non-host oriented kinesis</i> and <i>host-oriented taxis</i>. The gray circular area represents extent of detectable odor plume around a host of species or type (s). In blood acquisition processes, mosquitoes are said to encounter hosts when they first detect odor cues associated with that host (ε<sub>s</sub>). Then they can either attack the encountered host (γ<sub>s</sub>) or be diverted back to non-host-oriented kinesis (Δ<sub>s</sub>). Mosquitoes which go on to attack the host can either successfully feed (φ<sub>s</sub>) or die (μ<sub>s</sub>). Mosquitoes which successfully feed will go on to rest, digest the blood meals and then oviposit their eggs before eventually returning to host seeking state. This diagram is not drawn to scale and the host odor plume may not always be circular.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simplified", "conceptual", "adapted"], "article_id"=>510862, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_simplified_conceptual_structure_of_the_adapted_model_/510862", "title"=>"A simplified conceptual structure of the adapted model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:14:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840493"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows places where the odor baited mosquito traps should be located in different scenarios namely: <b>A</b>; where the communities are small, tightly aggregated and surrounded by large or numerous aquatic habitats, <b>B</b>; where habitats are relatively few and easily identifiable such as in arid-rural areas and <b>C</b>; in urban settings where the main aquatic habitats are surrounded by human settlements. This diagram is not drawn to scale and is limited to basic structural representations of spatial relationships between human settlements and mosquito larval breeding sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["positional", "strategies", "achieving", "optimal", "targeting", "odor-baited", "mosquito"], "article_id"=>510944, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Alternative_positional_strategies_for_achieving_optimal_targeting_of_odor_baited_mosquito_traps_/510944", "title"=>"Alternative positional strategies for achieving optimal targeting of odor-baited mosquito traps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:15:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840701"], "description"=>"<p>This figure depicts areas where: <b>A</b>; the primary vector is <i>Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto</i> and the trap locations are not spatially targeted, <b>B</b>; the primary vector is <i>Anopheles arabiensis</i> and the trap locations are not spatially targeted, <b>C</b>; the vector is <i>Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto</i> and the trap locations are spatially targeted to satisfy the 80–20 statistical distribution and <b>D</b>) where the vector is <i>Anopheles arabiensis</i> and trap locations are targeted to satisfy the 80–20 statistical distribution <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573-Woolhouse1\" target=\"_blank\">[63]</a>. The dotted lines extrapolate the number of traps per 1000 people that would be required to achieve protection equivalent to ITNs if the traps are used alone. All simulated traps are baited with long-range odors that attract 4 times as many malaria mosquitoes as humans <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573-Okumu3\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["odor-baited", "mosquito", "traps", "malaria", "situations", "itn"], "article_id"=>511149, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_odor_baited_mosquito_traps_on_malaria_transmission_in_situations_with_moderate_ITN_coverage_/511149", "title"=>"Effects of odor-baited mosquito traps on malaria transmission in situations with moderate ITN coverage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:19:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840774"], "description"=>"<p>This figure shows that with high pre-existing ITN coverage (80% in this case), the combined intervention would yield far greater benefits with lower trap numbers than in situations with moderate ITN coverage (for example 50% shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>). The dotted lines (not shown in panels A and B) extrapolate the number of traps per 1000 people that would be required to achieve protection equivalent to ITNs if the traps are used alone. All simulated traps are baited with long-range odors that attract 4 times as many malaria mosquitoes as humans <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573-Okumu3\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["odor-baited", "mosquito", "traps", "malaria", "situations", "itn"], "article_id"=>511225, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_odor_baited_mosquito_traps_on_malaria_transmission_in_situations_with_high_ITN_coverage_/511225", "title"=>"Effects of odor-baited mosquito traps on malaria transmission in situations with high ITN coverage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:20:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840846"], "description"=>"<p>This figure shows predicted relationship between proportion of total availability of hosts and pseudo hosts that is accounted for by odor-baited traps (trap coverage; C<sub>A</sub>) and resulting relative exposure to malaria (Ψ<sub>Ω</sub>) when odor-baited mosquito traps are used in communities where there are no ITNs or in communities where half of the population already uses ITNs. The simulated traps are baited with long-range odors, which can attract at least four times as many malaria mosquitoes as humans <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573-Okumu3\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>. The trap coverage (C<sub>A</sub>) can be improved by several means, for example by increasing bait attractiveness, biasing trap locations towards areas with most mosquitoes, increasing the number of traps, or removing cattle from the area. Spatial targeting according to the 80–20 statistical distribution means concentrating the traps in areas where at least 80% of all mosquitoes are found <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573-Woolhouse1\" target=\"_blank\">[63]</a>. All data points presented here are sampled from the simulations described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-g003\" target=\"_blank\">figures 3</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-g004\" target=\"_blank\">4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria"], "article_id"=>511304, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_trap_coverage_C_A_and_relative_malaria_exposure_936_937_/511304", "title"=>"Relationship between trap coverage (C<sub>A</sub>) and relative malaria exposure (Ψ<sub>Ω</sub>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:21:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840913"], "description"=>"a<p>This table contains only those intervention parameters considered to be necessary for primary understanding and parameterization of the model. A full listing of all intervention parameters is available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-t001\" target=\"_blank\">tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-t002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a> and in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573.s001\" target=\"_blank\">File S1</a>, within the spreadsheet containing the model. All values represent mean parameter values in this deterministic model.</p>b<p>It is assumed that only one person among the 1000 people is using the ITNs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["references", "parameters"], "article_id"=>511369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Values_and_references_for_intervention_parameters_in_the_simulations_a_/511369", "title"=>"Values and references for intervention parameters in the simulations.<sup>a</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:22:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840947"], "description"=>"a<p>This table contains only those ecological parameters considered to be necessary for the primary understanding and parameterization of the model. A full listing of all ecological parameters is available in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-t001\" target=\"_blank\">tables 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-t002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a> and in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone.0011573.s001\" target=\"_blank\">file S1</a>, within the spreadsheet containing the model. All entries refer to mean parameter values in this deterministic model.</p>b<p>The value of the parameter is equivalent to attacks per day per host-seeking vector per unprotected human.</p>c<p>The value of the parameter is equivalent to attacks per day per host-seeking vector per individual head of cattle and was different for the two vector species <i>Anopheles arabiensis</i> and <i>Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto</i>. With the exception of this parameter, all the other values are assumed to be identical for both species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["references", "parameters"], "article_id"=>511406, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Values_and_references_for_ecological_parameters_in_the_simulations_a_/511406", "title"=>"Values and references for ecological parameters in the simulations.<sup>a</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:23:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840986"], "description"=>"<p>Symbols and their meanings-continued from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573#pone-0011573-t001\" target=\"_blank\">table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["meanings-continued"], "article_id"=>511444, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Symbols_and_their_meanings_continued_from_table_1_/511444", "title"=>"Symbols and their meanings-continued from table 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:24:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/841027"], "description"=>"<p>Symbols and their meanings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Infectious diseases", "computational biology/ecosystem modeling", "infectious diseases/epidemiology and control of infectious diseases", "infectious diseases/protozoal infections", "public health and epidemiology/infectious diseases", "public health and epidemiology/preventive medicine"], "article_id"=>511478, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Computational Biology", "Medicine", "Physics", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Fredros O. Okumu", "Nicodem J. Govella", "Sarah J. Moore", "Nakul Chitnis", "Gerry F. Killeen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011573.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Symbols_and_their_meanings_/511478", "title"=>"Symbols and their meanings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-14 00:24:38"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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