Sexual Experience Promotes Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus Despite an Initial Elevation in Stress Hormones
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{"title"=>"Sexual experience promotes adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus despite an initial elevation in stress hormones", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Benedetta", "last_name"=>"Leuner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603500965"}, {"first_name"=>"Erica R.", "last_name"=>"Glasper", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003946157"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Gould", "scopus_author_id"=>"35866823100"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20644737", "sgr"=>"77955372944", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011597", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955372944", "pui"=>"359318687", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"985ca95e-987f-3308-a621-5f238f7c4fba", "abstract"=>"Aversive stressful experiences are typically associated with increased anxiety and a predisposition to develop mood disorders. Negative stress also suppresses adult neurogenesis and restricts dendritic architecture in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with anxiety regulation. The effects of aversive stress on hippocampal structure and function have been linked to stress-induced elevations in glucocorticoids. Normalizing corticosterone levels prevents some of the deleterious consequences of stress, including increased anxiety and suppressed structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Here we examined whether a rewarding stressor, namely sexual experience, also adversely affects hippocampal structure and function in adult rats. Adult male rats were exposed to a sexually-receptive female once (acute) or once daily for 14 consecutive days (chronic) and levels of circulating glucocorticoids were measured. Separate cohorts of sexually experienced rats were injected with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine in order to measure cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. In addition, brains were processed using Golgi impregnation to assess the effects of sexual experience on dendritic spines and dendritic complexity in the hippocampus. Finally, to evaluate whether sexual experience alters hippocampal function, rats were tested on two tests of anxiety-like behavior: novelty suppressed feeding and the elevated plus maze. We found that acute sexual experience increased circulating corticosterone levels and the number of new neurons in the hippocampus. Chronic sexual experience no longer produced an increase in corticosterone levels but continued to promote adult neurogenesis and stimulate the growth of dendritic spines and dendritic architecture. Chronic sexual experience also reduced anxiety-like behavior. These findings suggest that a rewarding experience not only buffers against the deleterious actions of early elevated glucocorticoids but actually promotes neuronal growth and reduces anxiety.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sexual-experience-promotes-adult-neurogenesis-hippocampus-despite-initial-elevation-stress-hormones", "reader_count"=>163, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>23, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>70, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>18, "Neuroscience"=>21, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>23, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>18}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>23}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>21}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>70}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "China"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Mexico"=>2, "South Africa"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>5}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/841015"], "description"=>"<p>(a) 14 days of sexual experience did not increase glucocorticoid levels compared to naive controls. (b) The number of proliferating cells (those labeled with BrdU and examined after a 2 h survival) was increased in rats with chronic sexual experience compared to naive controls or those exposed to a non-receptive female. (c) The increased number of proliferating cells in sexually-experienced rats was confirmed using the endogenous marker of cell proliferation, Ki67. (d, e) Sexual experience produced more new neurons (those labeled with BrdU and examined after a 2 week survival) ― the majority of BrdU-labeled cells (arrows) expressed TuJ1 and NeuN, but not GFAP. Scale bars, 10 µm. gcl, granule cell layer. Bars represent mean ± SEM, <sup>*</sup><i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhances", "proliferation", "neurogenesis", "altering", "glucocorticoid"], "article_id"=>511472, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benedetta Leuner", "Erica R. Glasper", "Elizabeth Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011597.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chronic_sexual_experience_enhances_cell_proliferation_and_adult_neurogenesis_without_altering_glucocorticoid_levels_/511472", "title"=>"Chronic sexual experience enhances cell proliferation and adult neurogenesis without altering glucocorticoid levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:37:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/841183"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Compared to naive controls, sexual experience reduced anxiety-like behavior on the novelty suppressed feeding paradigm. (b) Home cage food consumption was unaltered. In contrast, anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze was unaffected by sexual experience. (c) Percent time in the opens arms as well as (d) open and closed arm entries were similar in naive and sexually-experienced rats. Bars represent mean ± SEM, <sup>*</sup><i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures", "anxiety-like"], "article_id"=>511642, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benedetta Leuner", "Erica R. Glasper", "Elizabeth Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011597.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_experience_reduces_some_measures_of_anxiety_like_behavior_/511642", "title"=>"Sexual experience reduces some measures of anxiety-like behavior.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:38:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/840925"], "description"=>"<p>Compared to naive controls, a single sexual experience elevated (a) corticosterone levels and (b) the number of proliferating cells (labeled with BrdU and examined after a 2 h survival). Bars represent mean ± SEM, <sup>*</sup><i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhances", "proliferation", "dentate", "gyrus", "elevated", "glucocorticoid"], "article_id"=>511371, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benedetta Leuner", "Erica R. Glasper", "Elizabeth Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011597.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acute_sexual_experience_enhances_cell_proliferation_in_the_dentate_gyrus_despite_elevated_glucocorticoid_levels_/511371", "title"=>"Acute sexual experience enhances cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus despite elevated glucocorticoid levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:37:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/841282"], "description"=>"<p>There was no difference across days in the average number of mounts, intromissions, or ejaculations displayed during a 30 min exposure to a hormonally-primed sexually receptive female. Numbers represent mean ± SEM. <i>P</i>>0.05 for all comparisons, repeated measures ANOVA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["14", "rats", "exposed", "sexually-receptive"], "article_id"=>511740, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benedetta Leuner", "Erica R. Glasper", "Elizabeth Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011597.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_behavior_on_day_1_7_and_14_of_male_rats_n_8202_8202_6_exposed_to_a_sexually_receptive_female_daily_for_14_consecutive_days_/511740", "title"=>"Sexual behavior on day 1, 7, and 14 of male rats (n = 6) exposed to a sexually-receptive female daily for 14 consecutive days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:39:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/841100"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Golgi-impregnated dentate gyrus granule neuron with high magnification images of dendritic segments from a naive (top) and a sexually-experienced (bottom) rat. Arrows indicate dendritic spines. Scale bar, 10 µm (cell), 1 µm (dendrite). Sexual experience increased (b) dendritic spine density, (c) dendritic length and, (d) dendritic branching of granule neurons. (e) Dendritic spine density on apical and basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons was unaffected. Bars represent mean ± SEM, <sup>*</sup><i>P</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alters", "dendritic"], "article_id"=>511559, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Benedetta Leuner", "Erica R. Glasper", "Elizabeth Gould"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011597.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sexual_experience_alters_dendritic_morphology_/511559", "title"=>"Sexual experience alters dendritic morphology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 00:38:03"}

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Relative Metric

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