Good and Bad in the Hands of Politicians: Spontaneous Gestures during Positive and Negative Speech
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{"title"=>"Good and bad in the hands of politicians: Spontaneous gestures during positive and negative speech", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Casasanto", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507949013"}, {"first_name"=>"Kyle", "last_name"=>"Jasmin", "scopus_author_id"=>"36608155300"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"77955640341", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011805", "pui"=>"359358176", "pmid"=>"20676371", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77955640341", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"5277322a-d7de-369c-bedf-7470ef22182f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: According to the body-specificity hypothesis, people with different bodily characteristics should form correspondingly different mental representations, even in highly abstract conceptual domains. In a previous test of this proposal, right- and left-handers were found to associate positive ideas like intelligence, attractiveness, and honesty with their dominant side and negative ideas with their non-dominant side. The goal of the present study was to determine whether 'body-specific' associations of space and valence can be observed beyond the laboratory in spontaneous behavior, and whether these implicit associations have visible consequences.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed speech and gesture (3012 spoken clauses, 1747 gestures) from the final debates of the 2004 and 2008 US presidential elections, which involved two right-handers (Kerry, Bush) and two left-handers (Obama, McCain). Blind, independent coding of speech and gesture allowed objective hypothesis testing. Right- and left-handed candidates showed contrasting associations between gesture and speech. In both of the left-handed candidates, left-hand gestures were associated more strongly with positive-valence clauses and right-hand gestures with negative-valence clauses; the opposite pattern was found in both right-handed candidates.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Speakers associate positive messages more strongly with dominant hand gestures and negative messages with non-dominant hand gestures, revealing a hidden link between action and emotion. This pattern cannot be explained by conventions in language or culture, which associate 'good' with 'right' but not with 'left'; rather, results support and extend the body-specificity hypothesis. Furthermore, results suggest that the hand speakers use to gesture may have unexpected (and probably unintended) communicative value, providing the listener with a subtle index of how the speaker feels about the content of the co-occurring speech.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/good-bad-hands-politicians-spontaneous-gestures-during-positive-negative-speech", "reader_count"=>115, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>31, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Computer Science"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>55, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Linguistics"=>14}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>55}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Poland"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>5}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4427863"], "description"=>"<p><b>A. Examples of one-handed gestures produced by the 2004 and 2008 US presidential candidates.</b> Left panels: The left-handers, Obama (top) and McCain (bottom), gesturing with their left hands during speech with positive valence. Right panels: The right-handers, Kerry (top) and Bush (bottom), gesturing with their right hands during speech with positive valence. Spoken clauses corresponding to each picture can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011805#pone-0011805-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>. <b>B. Associations between speech and gesture in each presidential candidate.</b> Proportions of right- and left-hand gestures during spoken clauses with positive (red) and negative (blue) emotional valence. In left-handers, left-hand gestures were more strongly associated with positive-valence speech than right-hand gestures, and right-hand gestures were more strongly associated with negative-valence clauses than left-hand gestures, but the opposite association between hand and valence was found in right-handers (Wald <i>χ</i><sup>2</sup> = 12.65, df = 1, p = .0004).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Spontaneous Gestures", "hand gestures", "results support", "Negative Speech BackgroundAccording", "1747 gestures", "hand speakers use", "Principal FindingsWe", "speech", "objective hypothesis testing"], "article_id"=>508562, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Daniel Casasanto", "Kyle Jasmin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011805.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_gestures_and_results_of_the_speech_gesture_analysis_/508562", "title"=>"Examples of gestures and results of the speech-gesture analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-07-28 13:39:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4427869"], "description"=>"<p>Spoken clauses corresponding to each frame of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0011805#pone-0011805-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1A</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Spontaneous Gestures", "hand gestures", "results support", "Negative Speech BackgroundAccording", "1747 gestures", "hand speakers use", "Principal FindingsWe", "speech", "objective hypothesis testing"], "article_id"=>2747578, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Daniel Casasanto", "Kyle Jasmin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011805.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Spoken_clauses_corresponding_to_each_frame_of_Figure_1A_/2747578", "title"=>"Spoken clauses corresponding to each frame of Figure 1A.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-28 13:39:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4427866"], "description"=>"<p>Number of right- and left-hand gestures during clauses with positive and negative emotional valence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Spontaneous Gestures", "hand gestures", "results support", "Negative Speech BackgroundAccording", "1747 gestures", "hand speakers use", "Principal FindingsWe", "speech", "objective hypothesis testing"], "article_id"=>2747575, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Daniel Casasanto", "Kyle Jasmin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011805.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Number_of_right_and_left_hand_gestures_during_clauses_with_positive_and_negative_emotional_valence_/2747575", "title"=>"Number of right- and left-hand gestures during clauses with positive and negative emotional valence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-07-28 13:39:12"}

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Relative Metric

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