Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct “Terror Bird” Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)
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{"title"=>"Mechanical analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct \" Terror Bird \" Andalgalornis steulleti(Gruiformes: phorusrhacidae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Federico J.", "last_name"=>"Degrange", "scopus_author_id"=>"14035163200"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudia P.", "last_name"=>"Tambussi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508322766"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen", "last_name"=>"Moreno", "scopus_author_id"=>"35606959800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lawrence M.", "last_name"=>"Witmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601970331"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Wroe", "scopus_author_id"=>"35726136500"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359754137", "sgr"=>"77957860814", "pmid"=>"20805872", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77957860814", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0011856", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"b8909697-7874-35da-9b19-00a3d3d33ac5", "abstract"=>"The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (approximately 40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene-lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and morphological analysis, the skull of Andalgalornis steulleti is interpreted as showing features reflecting loss of intracranial immobility. Discrete anatomical attributes permitting such cranial kinesis are widespread phorusrhacids outgroups, but this is the first clear evidence of loss of cranial kinesis in a gruiform bird and may be among the best documented cases among all birds. This apomorphic loss is interpreted as an adaptation for enhanced craniofacial rigidity, particularly with regard to sagittal loading. We apply a Finite Element approach to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull. Based on regression analysis we estimate the bite force of Andalgalornis at the bill tip to be 133 N. Relative to results obtained from Finite Element Analysis of one of its closest living relatives (seriema) and a large predatory bird (eagle), the phorusrhacid's skull shows relatively high stress under lateral loadings, but low stress where force is applied dorsoventrally (sagittally) and in \"pullback\" simulations. Given the relative weakness of the skull mediolaterally, it seems unlikely that Andalgalornis engaged in potentially risky behaviors that involved subduing large, struggling prey with its beak. We suggest that it either consumed smaller prey that could be killed and consumed more safely (e.g., swallowed whole) or that it used multiple well-targeted sagittal strikes with the beak in a repetitive attack-and-retreat strategy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mechanical-analysis-feeding-behavior-extinct-terror-bird-andalgalornis-steulletigruiformes-phorusrha", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415875", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415909", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415931", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/415953"], "description"=>"<div><p>The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (∼40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid <em>Andalgalornis steulleti</em> (upper Miocene–lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and morphological analysis, the skull of <em>Andalgalornis steulleti</em> is interpreted as showing features reflecting loss of intracranial immobility. Discrete anatomical attributes permitting such cranial kinesis are widespread phorusrhacids outgroups, but this is the first clear evidence of loss of cranial kinesis in a gruiform bird and may be among the best documented cases among all birds. This apomorphic loss is interpreted as an adaptation for enhanced craniofacial rigidity, particularly with regard to sagittal loading. We apply a Finite Element approach to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull. Based on regression analysis we estimate the bite force of <em>Andalgalornis</em> at the bill tip to be 133 N. Relative to results obtained from Finite Element Analysis of one of its closest living relatives (seriema) and a large predatory bird (eagle), the phorusrhacid's skull shows relatively high stress under lateral loadings, but low stress where force is applied dorsoventrally (sagittally) and in “pullback” simulations. Given the relative weakness of the skull mediolaterally, it seems unlikely that <em>Andalgalornis</em> engaged in potentially risky behaviors that involved subduing large, struggling prey with its beak. We suggest that it either consumed smaller prey that could be killed and consumed more safely (e.g., swallowed whole) or that it used multiple well-targeted sagittal strikes with the beak in a repetitive attack-and-retreat strategy.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feeding", "extinct"], "article_id"=>142112, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Federico J. Degrange", "Claudia P. Tambussi", "Karen Moreno", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Stephen Wroe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mechanical_Analysis_of_Feeding_Behavior_in_the_Extinct_Terror_Bird_Andalgalornis_steulleti_Gruiformes_Phorusrhacidae_/142112", "title"=>"Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct “Terror Bird” <em>Andalgalornis steulleti</em> (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 00:35:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835074"], "description"=>"<p>Mean brick element stresses (von Misses, VM) in solved FE models under three load cases; L = lateral shake, N = normal bite, P = pullback.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stresses", "solved", "fe", "models"], "article_id"=>505440, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Federico J. Degrange", "Claudia P. Tambussi", "Karen Moreno", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Stephen Wroe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_brick_element_stresses_von_Misses_VM_in_solved_FE_models_under_three_load_cases_L_8202_8202_lateral_shake_N_8202_8202_normal_bite_P_8202_8202_pullback_/505440", "title"=>"Mean brick element stresses (von Misses, VM) in solved FE models under three load cases; L = lateral shake, N = normal bite, P = pullback.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:30:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834751"], "description"=>"<p>A, dorsal view, B, ventral view, and C, left lateral view, based on volume rendering of CT scan data. Fossil bone is shown in light brown, and rock matrix and plaster restoration are shown in grey.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evolutionary biology/bioinformatics", "evolutionary biology/paleontology", "mathematics/finite element analysis"], "article_id"=>505116, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Federico J. Degrange", "Claudia P. Tambussi", "Karen Moreno", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Stephen Wroe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_of_Andalgalornis_steulleti_FMNH_P1435_/505116", "title"=>"Skull of <i>Andalgalornis steulleti</i> (FMNH P1435).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:25:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834882"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) <i>Andalgalornis steulleti</i>, (D–F) <i>Haliaeetus albicilla</i> and (G–I) <i>Cariama cristata</i> under three loads cases: (A, D, G) lateral shake, (B, E, H) Normal Bite and (C, F, I) Pullback. VM = Von Mises; MPa, mega pascals. White areas indicate VM exceeds the scale maximum (2 MP) at those areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fe"], "article_id"=>505254, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Federico J. Degrange", "Claudia P. Tambussi", "Karen Moreno", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Stephen Wroe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>94, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stress_Von_Mises_distribution_of_FE_models_/505254", "title"=>"Stress (Von Mises) distribution of FE models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/835010"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Solid model and (B) 1080137 brick homogeneous finite element model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3d"], "article_id"=>505383, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Federico J. Degrange", "Claudia P. Tambussi", "Karen Moreno", "Lawrence M. Witmer", "Stephen Wroe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011856.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Andalgalornis_steulleti_3D_models_/505383", "title"=>"<i>Andalgalornis steulleti</i> 3D models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-18 01:29:43"}

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