Turning the Table: Plants Consume Microbes as a Source of Nutrients
Publication Date
July 30, 2010
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Chanyarat Paungfoo Lonhienne, Doris Rentsch, Silke Robatzek, Richard I. Webb, et al
Volume
5
Issue
7
Pages
e11915
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011915
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20689833
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2912860
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20689833
Web of Science
000280520300026
Scopus
77955601920
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/turning-table-plants-consume-microbes-source-nutrients
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Mendeley | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/837701/Figure_1.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Evgeny Sagulenko", "Doris Rentsch", "Silke Robatzek", "Thierry G. A. Lonhienne", "Susanne Schmidt", "Torgny Näsholm", "Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne", "Richard I. Webb"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expressing", "incubated", "axenically", "yeast", "grown", "arabidopsis", "fluorescent"], "title"=>"<p>Roots of axenically grown Arabidopsis and tomato were incubated with <i>E coli</i> or yeast expressing green fluorescent protein (<sup>GFP</sup><i>E. coli</i> or <sup>GFP</sup>yeast).</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Roots_of_axenically_grown_Arabidopsis_and_tomato_were_incubated_with_E_coli_or_yeast_expressing_green_fluorescent_protein_GFP_E_coli_or_GFP_yeast_/508044", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.g001"], "published_date"=>"2010-07-30 02:14:04", "article_id"=>508044, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "description"=>"<p><sup>GFP</sup><i>E. coli</i> was detected at the surface of roots and root hairs (A and C), and inside roots and root hairs (B and D). <sup>GFP</sup>Yeast was present inside roots and root hairs (E and F). (A, D and F) and (B, C and E) correspond to tomato and Arabidopsis root, respectively. Fluorescent images were taken by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/837881/Figure_2.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Evgeny Sagulenko", "Doris Rentsch", "Silke Robatzek", "Thierry G. A. Lonhienne", "Susanne Schmidt", "Torgny Näsholm", "Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne", "Richard I. Webb"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transverse", "micrographs", "apoplast", "electron", "arabidopsis", "sections"], "title"=>"<p>Root transverse sections and electron micrographs of tomato and Arabidopsis show <sup>GFP</sup><i>E. coli</i> in the apoplast and inside root cells.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Root_transverse_sections_and_electron_micrographs_of_tomato_and_Arabidopsis_show_GFP_E_coli_in_the_apoplast_and_inside_root_cells_/508234", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.g002"], "published_date"=>"2010-07-30 02:17:14", "article_id"=>508234, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "description"=>"<p><i>E. coli</i> was detected inside tomato roots (A, C and D, E and F) and Arabidopsis roots (B). (A and B) Fluorescent images of transverse sectioned roots taken by CLSM. (C and D) Images taken by a transmission electron microscope. White triangles in (C) indicate <i>E. coli</i> cell present in apoplast. (D) Roots were probed with immunogold-labeled anti-GFP revealing <i>E. coli</i> in root cortex cells. Sub-image in (D) is a detail of dash-white square box. Gold labeling is marked with white arrows. Rhizodermis cell (R) and plant cell wall (pcw) is indicated. (F) is a detail image of (E) showing plant cells containing <i>E. coli</i>, and both images were taken by SEM.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/838064/Figure_3.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Evgeny Sagulenko", "Doris Rentsch", "Silke Robatzek", "Thierry G. A. Lonhienne", "Susanne Schmidt", "Torgny Näsholm", "Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne", "Richard I. Webb"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["degradation", "yeast"], "title"=>"<p>Time course experiment of yeast degradation in tomato roots.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_experiment_of_yeast_degradation_in_tomato_roots_/508419", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.g003"], "published_date"=>"2010-07-30 02:20:19", "article_id"=>508419, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "description"=>"<p >(A) The number of living yeast cells (fluorescing green) in tomato decreased over time as observed by CLSM. (B) The amount of recombinant TDH3:GFP protein present inside the roots 0decreased over time. Equal amounts of proteins from root extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE (B, Left) and analyzed by western blot using anti-GFP antibody to detect yeast recombinant TDH3:GFP protein (B, Right).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/417937/Figure_S1.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/417965/Figure_S2.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/417988/Figure_S3.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/418020/Figure_S4.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/418052/Movie_S1.avi", "http://files.figshare.com/418081/Movie_S2.avi", "http://files.figshare.com/418114/Movie_S3.avi", "http://files.figshare.com/418147/Movie_S4.avi", "http://files.figshare.com/418183/Movie_S5.avi"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Evgeny Sagulenko", "Doris Rentsch", "Silke Robatzek", "Thierry G. A. Lonhienne", "Susanne Schmidt", "Torgny Näsholm", "Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne", "Richard I. Webb"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plants", "turning", "microbes", "nutrients"], "title"=>"Turning the Table: Plants Consume Microbes as a Source of Nutrients", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/Turning_the_Table_Plants_Consume_Microbes_as_a_Source_of_Nutrients/142524", "defined_type"=>4, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s001", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s002", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s003", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s004", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s005", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s006", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s007", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s008", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.s009"], "published_date"=>"2010-07-30 00:42:04", "article_id"=>142524, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine", "Cancer"], "description"=>"<div><p>Interactions between plants and microbes in soil, the final frontier of ecology, determine the availability of nutrients to plants and thereby primary production of terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrient cycling in soils is considered a battle between autotrophs and heterotrophs in which the latter usually outcompete the former, although recent studies have questioned the unconditional reign of microbes on nutrient cycles and the plants' dependence on microbes for breakdown of organic matter. Here we present evidence indicative of a more active role of plants in nutrient cycling than currently considered. Using fluorescent-labeled non-pathogenic and non-symbiotic strains of a bacterium and a fungus (<em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, respectively), we demonstrate that microbes enter root cells and are subsequently digested to release nitrogen that is used in shoots. Extensive modifications of root cell walls, as substantiated by cell wall outgrowth and induction of genes encoding cell wall synthesizing, loosening and degrading enzymes, may facilitate the uptake of microbes into root cells. Our study provides further evidence that the autotrophy of plants has a heterotrophic constituent which could explain the presence of root-inhabiting microbes of unknown ecological function. Our discovery has implications for soil ecology and applications including future sustainable agriculture with efficient nutrient cycles.</p></div>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/838252/Figure_4.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Evgeny Sagulenko", "Doris Rentsch", "Silke Robatzek", "Thierry G. A. Lonhienne", "Susanne Schmidt", "Torgny Näsholm", "Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne", "Richard I. Webb"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["produced", "incubated", "cellulase"], "title"=>"<p>Root produced cellulase and extended the cell wall when incubated with <i>E. coli</i> Bl21.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Root_produced_cellulase_and_extended_the_cell_wall_when_incubated_with_E_coli_Bl21_/508603", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011915.g004"], "published_date"=>"2010-07-30 02:23:23", "article_id"=>508603, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Medicine", "Virology"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Incubation of Arabidopsis roots in 31 µg/mL resorufin cellubioside after incubating overnight with <i>E. coli</i>. After 2 h incubation, roots were viewed by CLSM. (B) TEM image of cell wall-like structure of plant roots encompassing bacteria. (C) TEM image of cellulase-gold labeling on the root sections with double labeling with the anti-GFP antibody. The size of the gold particle on bacteria is 15 nm (Au-particle specific to <sup>GFP</sup><i>E. coli</i>) and gold particles on the plant material are 10 nm (Au-particle specific to plant cellulose). (d), (e) and (f) are detail images of insets d, e and f.</p>"}

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